Ecuador - 1. Country Profile

Generic Information 


Ecuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador, is a representative democracy in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia to the north, Peru to the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Ecuador also includes the Galapagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) west of the mainland. The capital city is Quito, while the largest city is Guayaquil. 

What is now Ecuador was home to a variety of Amerindian groups who were gradually incorporated into the Inca Empire during the 15th century. The territory was colonized by Spain during the 16th century and achieved independence in 1820 as part of Gran Colombia, from which it emerged as its own sovereign state in 1830. The legacy of both empires is reflected in Ecuador's ethnically diverse population, with the majority of its 18 million people being mestizos, followed by large minorities of descendants of Europeans, Amerindians* and Africans**. Spanish is the official language and is spoken by the majority of the population, although 13 Amerindian languages ​​are also recognized, including Quechua and Shuar. 

(*)The Indigenous World 2022: Ecuador. For self-identification in the Census carried out in 2010, the following indigenous nationalities were considered: Tsáchila, Chachi, Epera, Awa, Kichwas, Shuar, Achuar, Shiwiar, Cofán, Siona, Secoya, Zápara, Andoa and Waorani. 


Ecuador is a middle-income country, with a developing, "dollarized" economy, quite open and highly dependent on oil revenues (which represent between 14 and 20 percent of GDP, more than half of the income from of exports and between 20 and 30 percent of public income. At the industry level, 14 of the 18 economic activities reported growth in 2022. Among the sectors with the highest growth are: Accommodation and Food Services (12, 2%), Aquaculture and Shrimp Fishing (11.8%), Postal and Communications (10.7%), Electricity and Water Supply (6.7%), and Education and Social and Health Services (5.8%). %). 

It is governed as a democratic presidential republic. Ecuador, one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries, is home to many endemic plants and animals, such as those of the Galapagos Islands. In recognition of its unique ecological heritage, the new 2008 constitution is the first in the world to recognize legally enforceable Rights of Nature, or ecosystem rights. 


Generic country information can be obtained from sources that are regularly maintained and reflect current facts and figures. For a generic overview of the country, see the following sources: 


Country information on Ecuador Wikipedia (


IMF country information for Ecuador (


Information Intelligence Unit of Economists of Ecuador *** (

(***) note: This is a paid service 


Humanitarian Info 


Ecuador World Food Program Information (

Ecuador UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Information (  


Facts and Figures 


Ecuador Wolfram Alpha Information  (*Country.Ecuador

Ecuador Information World Bank (  

Ecuador Population statistics (  

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