South Sudan, Republic of
South Sudan, Republic of - 3.1 Fuel

Fuel Overview

Fuel provision in South Sudan faces significant challenges in terms of supply and storage. The country heavily relies on imported petroleum products due to limited domestic refining capacity. Logistical constraints, including inadequate infrastructure, insecurity, and political instability, often disrupt supply chains. This results in frequent fuel shortages and price fluctuations. Moreover, storage facilities are insufficient and poorly maintained, leading to limited capacity and potential fuel quality issues. These challenges highlight the need for investment in infrastructure development, efficient supply management, and strategic storage facilities to ensure a more reliable and sustainable fuel provision system in South Sudan.

Both government distributors and private companies provide fuel in South Sudan. The national oil company, Nile Petroleum Corporation (Nilepet), plays a significant role in fuel provision as the main government distributor. It has a monopoly over oil exploration, production, and distribution in the country. Additionally, there are several private companies involved in the fuel sector, including Trinity Energy, Petronas, and Sahara Energy, which import and distribute petroleum products. These private companies operate through partnerships with international oil companies and contribute to the overall fuel supply in South Sudan. However, the sector is still evolving, and efforts are being made to promote competition, attract investment, and improve the efficiency of fuel supply and distribution in the country.

Fuel supply in South Sudan has been a significant challenge, both currently and historically. South Sudan heavily depends on fuel imports due to limited internal production capacity. Most fuel arrives from neighbouring countries such as Sudan, Uganda, and Kenya. However, political instability, conflicts, and logistical constraints have often disrupted fuel supply chains, causing shortages and price fluctuations. Internal production has been hampered by infrastructure constraints, lack of investment, and technical expertise. The country's landlocked geography further complicates fuel transportation, increasing costs and vulnerability to disruptions. These fuel supply issues have had adverse effects on various sectors of the economy, including transportation, agriculture, and power generation, impacting the livelihoods of the population.

For more information on government and fuel provider contact details, please see the following links: 4.1 Government Contact List and 4.7 Fuel Providers Contact List.

Information may also be found at: which is updated monthly. 

Fuel Pricing

The fuel price in South Sudan is determined by various factors, including international crude oil prices, transportation costs, taxes, and government policies. The government heavily regulates the fuel sector and sets the retail price through the Ministry of Petroleum and Mining. The pricing formula considers the cost of importing or refining fuel, transportation costs, distribution margins, and taxes.

Government policies and taxes play a significant role in fuel pricing in South Sudan. The government imposes a fuel tax, a percentage of the retail price, to generate revenue. Additionally, there may be other levies and fees imposed by the government, such as customs duties and fuel subsidies. These policies and taxes influence the final fuel price and can lead to price fluctuations.

It is worth noting that the government has sometimes intervened to stabilize fuel prices during times of crisis or to mitigate social unrest. However, these interventions may have unintended consequences and can strain the fiscal resources of the government. Overall, government policies and taxes have a direct impact on the pricing of fuel in South Sudan, and any changes in these policies can have significant implications for the fuel market and the economy.

Seasonal Variations 

Yes, there are seasonal variations in fuel supply and management in South Sudan. During the rainy season, which typically lasts from May to November, the transportation infrastructure becomes more challenging due to flooded roads and impassable routes. This can disrupt the supply chain and hinder fuel delivery to various regions of the country. Additionally, agricultural activities such as harvesting and transporting crops during certain seasons may increase the demand for fuel, putting additional strain on the already limited supply. To manage these seasonal variations, the government and fuel suppliers often need to plan, stockpile fuel, and ensure alternative transportation methods are in place to address the logistical challenges during the rainy season.

Seasonal Variations

Are there national priorities in the availability of fuel? (i.e. are there restrictions or priorities for the provision of fuel such as to the military?)


Is there a rationing system?


Is fuel to lower income / vulnerable groups subsidized?


Can the local industry expand fuel supply to meet humanitarian needs?

Yes, However, a sudden and prolonged surge in demand would be problematic and given the length of the supply chain.

It is highly unlikely that South Sudanese fuel suppliers would be able to meet the surge in demand for extended periods of time.

Is it possible for a humanitarian organization to directly contract a reputable supplier / distributor to provide its fuel needs?

Yes, various suppliers with direct access to fuel refineries is operating within South Sudan.

Fuel Transportation

The internal fuel transport in South Sudan is primarily carried out through road and river transportation. Fuel is transported in tanker trucks over long distances to various regions of the country, and in some cases, it is transported via river barges. However, there are significant constraints and bottlenecks that exist in the internal transport of fuel. The country's infrastructure, including roads and bridges, is often inadequate and poorly maintained, making transportation challenging and prone to delays. This, coupled with security concerns and the seasonal variations in road conditions, hampers the efficient and timely delivery of fuel. Moreover, the limited capacity of storage facilities and the lack of strategic reserves further exacerbate the challenges in meeting local fuel needs and potential increases in demand from the humanitarian community. Addressing these constraints and investing in infrastructure development would be crucial to improving the internal transport of fuel and ensuring a reliable supply to meet both local and humanitarian demands in South Sudan.

Standards, Quality and Testing

In South Sudan, ensuring fuel quality standards and enforcing them is an important aspect of the fuel sector. The Ministry of Petroleum and Mining is responsible for setting and monitoring these standards to ensure that the fuel being supplied meets the required specifications. These standards typically cover parameters such as octane or cetane rating, sulfur content, density, and other quality indicators. The ministry collaborates with relevant stakeholders, including fuel suppliers and importers, to ensure compliance with these standards.

As for enforcing fuel quality standards, the government conducts inspections and monitoring activities to verify the quality of fuel sold in the market. This includes conducting random sampling and testing fuel samples to check if they meet the prescribed standards. If any deviations or violations are found, appropriate actions may be taken, such as fines, penalties, or even suspensions.

Regarding national testing laboratories, South Sudan faces challenges establishing and maintaining such facilities. While efforts have been made in the past to set up national testing laboratories, the progress has been limited. As a result, the country often relies on external laboratories or regional testing facilities to carry out the necessary fuel quality testing. Establishing a well-equipped national testing laboratory would be beneficial in ensuring more efficient and timely monitoring and enforcement of fuel quality standards in South Sudan.

Industry Control Measures

Do tanks have adequate protection against water mixing with the fuel?

Yes, only large suppliers can adequately provide this capacity.

Are there filters in the system which monitor where fuel is loaded into aircraft?

Yes, major fuel suppliers have filter systems in place both at fuel storage units and on fuel trucks ensure water and particulate filtration.

Is there adequate epoxy coating of tanks on trucks?

No, only major fuel suppliers have adequate protection.

Is there a presence of suitable firefighting equipment?

Yes, only large suppliers can realistically provide acceptable fire fighting systems and adhere to international standards.


Standards Authority

Is there a national or regional standards authority?


If yes, please identify the appropriate national and/or regional authority.



If yes, are the standards adequate/properly enforced?



Testing Laboratories

Are there national testing laboratories?



Disclaimer: Inclusion of company information in the LCA does not imply any business relationship between the supplier and WFP / Logistics Cluster, and is used solely as a determinant of services, and capacities.

Please note: WFP / Logistics Cluster maintain complete impartiality and are not in a position to endorse, comment on any company's suitability as a reputable service provider.


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