South Sudan, Republic of
South Sudan, Republic of - 3.7 Waste Management Infrastructure Assessment 


Waste Collection: South Sudan has poor waste collection ratios due to the lack of an integrated solid waste management system. Case in point, only 2.6% (34.3 tons) of 1, 337 tons of solid waste generated in Juba per day is collected​ (JICA, 2018)​. In urban areas such as Juba, waste is typically collected by municipal authorities or private companies by use of trucks. However, coverage and frequency of waste collection in urban centres is still inadequate due to limited infrastructure and resources, leading to uncollected waste and improper disposal. In rural areas, waste collection systems are generally lacking, and waste is often disposed of indiscriminately in open ground. 

Regulations and Government Bodies:  The Ministry of Environment and Forestry is the main government body responsible for Solid waste management. The ministry implements waste management activities in the country in coordination with municipal authorities such as the Juba City Council.   The “Environmental Management Act of 2012” is the primary legislation governing environmental protection, including waste management Additional regulations include The National Environmental Policy (2015-2025); provides a framework that ensures protection and conservation of the environment and sustainable management of renewable natural resources.  

National policy on medical waste management (2011); provides guidance on medical waste management in South Sudan and is actioned by the national medical waste management plan. 

Juba City Council by-laws (2013); waste management in the Juba City by-laws is covered under Chapter 3 “Cleaning of Juba City Council”. 

Rejaf County By-laws, 2016-2017; waste management in the Rejaf by-laws is covered in clauses 5 and 6 of Chapter 1.    

However, it is essential to note that the enforcement and implementation of these regulations face challenges due to limited resources and capacity. 

Service Providers: Waste management services in South Sudan are primarily provided by the government and some private companies. City Council authorities are responsible for waste collection in urban areas, although the coverage and quality of services may vary. Private companies also play a role in waste collection, particularly in larger cities; a survey done by JICA established there were 16 registered private waste collection actors in Juba in 2018​ (JICA, 2018, p. 21)​.  However, the overall capacity and efficiency of waste management services in the country are limited; this is evident in Juba City Council where only 10 of the registered private actors were operational and all 10 solid waste collection trucks owned by the council had broken down by the time of the survey.However, the overall capacity and efficiency of waste management services in the country are limited; this is evident in Juba City Council where only 10 of the registered private actors were operational and all 10 solid waste collection trucks owned by the council had broken down by the time of the survey. 

Landfills: Management of landfills is primarily the responsibility of local authorities, although they lack adequate capacity and resources for proper landfill maintenance. There is no actual data on the number and status of landfills in the country.  Many areas rely on open dumping or operate illegal dumping sites without adhering to statutory requirements for example, Juba-Nimule Road has a roadside illegal dumping site that receives up to 8.6 tons of solid waste per day​ (JICA, 2018)​.    

Existing few legally controlled dump sites remain dilapidated, for example, the perimeter fence at the Juba controlled dump site was vandalized, hence allowing access to hostile waste pickers who openly burn waste and pose a security threat to drivers. In addition, frequent breakdown of bulldozers leads to foul smells from the landfills due to delayed burying of waste.  

Recycling Programs: Recycling programs in South Sudan are still in their early stages of development. While there are some private initiatives and small-scale recycling efforts, the overall recycling infrastructure is limited. In addition, the lack of a sustainable financing mechanism has led to the collapse of recycling initiatives led by local innovators.  

Challenges: Institutional, social, economic, and technical factors contribute to ineffective solid waste management in South Sudan.  

Institutional: Bureaucracy in approval of draft policies and laws regarding solid waste management. Most of these bills get stuck in the draft phase, hence hindering the provision of an adequate framework for the implementation of integrated solid waste management. Political instability also continues to affect the implementation of solid waste management initiatives as most interested private sector partners would fear for their individual safety.   

Social:  Household waste is not collected at source due to the lack of an integrated solid waste management system, hence most citizens typically dump waste on open ground or by the roadside due to a lack of awareness. This culture is ingrained in residents and contributes to a littered environment.   

Economic:  Ineffective coordination in financing and accounting. Waste management in Juba is coordinated by the Juba City Council but is broken down into 4 zones to ease service delivery. All four zones have independent accounting systems and act autonomously to each other and to the Department of Environment and Sanitation in the Juba City Council account. Such working arrangements hinder the efficient coordination of solid waste management initiatives.  

Technical: Lack of enough expertise to repair specialized vehicles such as compactors causes periodic grounding of the few available solid waste collection fleets reducing service efficiency; spare parts for such vehicles are also not readily available within the local market.  The density of paved roads in South Sudan is about 0.2 km for every 1000km2, hence most roads in between homes are muddy especially during the rainy season making it difficult for the fleet to approach waste collection​ (AFDB)​.   

For more information on waste management company contact details, please see the following link: 4.12 Waste Management Companies Contact List.

Hazardous Waste Disposal 

The availability of proper disposal options for hazardous waste in South Sudan is limited, posing significant challenges to the environment and public health. Hazardous waste, including e-waste, medical waste, appliances, air conditioners, refrigerators, oils, petrol, and lubricants, requires specialized handling and disposal due to its potential to harm human health and the environment. 

Currently, South Sudan lacks a comprehensive system for safely disposing of hazardous waste. There is a lack of dedicated facilities and infrastructure to handle and treat such waste effectively. As a result, hazardous waste is often disposed of improperly, such as open burning or dumping, which can release harmful substances into the air, soil, and water sources. 

The absence of specific regulations and guidelines for managing hazardous waste exacerbates the problem. South Sudan needs to develop and enforce legislation that addresses the proper handling, storage, transportation, treatment, and disposal of hazardous waste. This would involve establishing designated collection points, recycling facilities, and treatment plants to dispose of different types of hazardous waste safely. 

Efforts should also focus on raising awareness among the public and industries about the risks associated with improper disposal of hazardous waste and promoting responsible waste management practices. International partnerships and support can be crucial in providing technical expertise, funding, and capacity-building initiatives to help South Sudan develop a robust and sustainable system for hazardous waste management and disposal. 

For more information on waste types, please refer to the WREC project.  


Non-Hazardous Waste Disposal 

The availability of proper disposal options for non-hazardous waste, such as regular trash from camps or compounds, is also limited in South Sudan. The country faces challenges in waste management infrastructure and resources, which affects the proper disposal of non-hazardous waste. 

In many areas, non-hazardous waste is often disposed of through open dumping or burning, leading to environmental pollution and health risks. Municipal/City council authorities and private companies involved in waste management may provide some collection services in urban areas, but the coverage and frequency of waste collection may be inadequate. 

Regarding wastewater disposal, South Sudan faces challenges in managing black water (from toilets) and grey water (from sinks, showers, and laundry). The lack of proper sewage systems and treatment facilities results in the discharge of untreated wastewater into rivers, streams, or open areas. This can lead to contamination of water sources and the spread of waterborne diseases. 

To improve the disposal of non-hazardous waste and wastewater in South Sudan, there is a need for investment in waste management infrastructure, including waste collection systems, treatment facilities, and proper sewage systems. Government support and regulations are necessary to promote responsible waste disposal practices, and public awareness campaigns can help educate the population about the importance of proper waste management and the potential environmental and health impacts of improper disposal. 

Disclaimer: Registration does not imply any business relationship between the supplier and WFP/Logistics Cluster, and is used solely as a determinant of services, and capacities.  

Please Note: WFP/Logistics Cluster maintain complete impartiality and is not in a position to endorse, or comment on any company's suitability as a reputable service provider. 



​​AFDB. (n.d.). South Sudan: An infrastructure action plan. Abidjan: African Development Bank (AfDB) Group. 

​JICA. (2018). Data Collection Survey on Solid Waste Management in Juba; Republic of South Sudan. Juba: Ministry of Environment and Forestry. 



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