Uganda - 3.1 Fuel


Uganda Imports 100% of its petroleum requirements with the main Petroleum products imported include Petrol (PMS), Diesel (AGO), Kerosene (BIK) and Jet fuel: Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development – MEMD UGANDA (

  • By 2017 there were 43 Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) having active licenses to import petroleum products into the country.
  • According to the Ministry of Energy, Uganda has 208 licensed petroleum product distributors, which control 71% of storage reserves.
  • However, the market is split with Total and Vivo Energy dominantly sharing almost half of the market; where Total Energies LTD has 127 and Vivo Energy has 132 fuel stations.
  • Up to 92% of fuel imported into Uganda is on the Northern Corridor, mainly carried by pipeline to Eldoret and from there loaded by tanker trucks to Kampala.
    • The other 8 percent is transported via the Central Corridor by truck ex Dar es Salaam Port to Kampala by tanker trucks.
  • The Jinja Storage Terminal (JST) is managed by Uganda National Oil Company (UNOC) on behalf of Uganda Government in order to maintain a strategic fuel reserve.
    • The facility has a current capacity of 30 million litres of fuel: UNOC: Uganda National Oil Company


Fuel Pricing:

Due to the landlocked nature of Uganda, almost all of Uganda’s oils and oil products are transported through Kenya via the port of Mombasa.

  • The oil industry in Kenya is represented by both the Government and private companies.
  • Therefore, any events in the Kenyan oil industry or disturbance in the Kenyan political arena have an impact on the Uganda oil industry.
  • With the deregulation of trade in the country, big fuel companies like Shell and Total import big volumes and determine fuel prices at the pump just like the other fuel dealers.
  • Prices normally shoot up when there is scarcity or instability in Kenya and slightly reduce when supply stabilizes.

Table 3.1.1. Uganda: Fuel prices.

Fuel Prices as of: 16 Dec 2022 (local currency and US$)

Petrol (per litre)

6,193 /=/ or $1.67

Diesel (per litre)

5,855 /=/ or $1.58

Kerosene (per litre)

4,211 /=/ or $1.14

JET A1 (per litre)

3 064 /=/ or $0.83

Source: Uganda energy prices |

Table 3.1.2. Uganda: Seasonal variations.

Seasonal Variations

Are there national priorities in the availability of fuel, i.e., are there restrictions or priorities for the provision of fuel such as to the military? (Yes/No)


Is there a rationing system? (Yes/No)


Is fuel to lower income/vulnerable groups subsidized? (Yes/No)


Can the local industry expand fuel supply to meet humanitarian needs? (Yes/No)


Is it possible for a humanitarian organization to contract directly to a reputable supplier/distributor to provide its fuel needs? (Yes/No)



Fuel Transportation:

Fuel in Uganda is transported using special fuel tankers that protect fuel from rainwater or any form of external contamination.

  • The tankers are partitioned, and dealers/recipients determine the fuel quantity in the compartments using dipsticks.
  • The challenges with the fuel tankers are several; they consume fuel, increase traffic and whenever they get involved in accidents.
  • The current transport capacity is sufficient to deliver fuel to the dealers’ stations/outlets which have limited storage capacities.

29Uganda Bureau of Statistics, 2020., Statistical Abstract


Standards, Quality and Testing:

Due to the high tax levied on fuel products in the country, some unscrupulous dealers adulterate their products to earn higher profits.

  • These acts have affected vehicle engines and the government and individual dealers such as Shell Uganda (now Vivo Oils) have opened their own laboratories to test fuel delivered to their depots and have three other mobile testing facilities, fitted their trucks with GPS to monitor fuel trucks until their final destinations.
  • The Fuel Marking and Quality Monitoring Program were introduced in Uganda in 1999 by the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development (MEMD) in collaboration with the Fuel Marketing Companies and Uganda National Bureau of Standards (UNBS).
  • Under the Petro mark Technology supplied by Global Fluids International (GFI) two types of markers are used: Petro mark T1 for marking PMS (petrol) and AGO (diesel) and Petro mark T2 for marking BIK (kerosene).
  • Both markers are used to control and monitor product adulteration, smuggling and dumping of transit fuel.
  • It is a legal requirement that all importers of petroleum products are licensed by MEMD and adhere to the provisions of the Fuel Marking Program.
  • Marking is currently done at customs entry points of Malaba, Busia and Mutukula.
  • Arrangements can also be made to mark the fuel in Kampala with clearance from Uganda Revenue Authority.


Table 3.1.3. Uganda: Industry control measures.

Industry Control Measures

Tanks with adequate protection against water mixing with the fuel (Yes/No)


Filters in the system, monitors where fuel is loaded into aircraft (Yes/No)


Adequate epoxy coating of tanks on trucks (Yes/No)


Presence of suitable fire-fighting equipment (Yes/No)


Standards Authority

Is there a national or regional standards authority? (Yes / No)


If yes, are the standards adequate/properly enforced? (Yes / No)


Testing Laboratories

Are there national testing laboratories? (Yes / No)


Fuel Testing Laboratory


Uganda National Bureau of Standards





Plot M217 Nakawa Industrial Area

P.O. Box 6329, Kampala, Uganda.

Telephone and Fax

Tel: +256-041-505995

Fax: +256-041 286123



Mr.Aziz Mukota

Head Chemistry Laboratory

Standards used

The South African National Accreditation System

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