Tukastan
Tukastan - 1 Tukastan Country Profile

Generic country information can be located from sources which are regularly maintained and reflect current facts and figures.

Generic Information

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After annexion by the Russian Empire in the 19th century, Tukastan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. It achieved its independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. President al Hullain retains absolute control over the country and opposition is not tolerated. Extensive hydrocarbon / natural gas reserves could prove to be an economic boom to this underdeveloped country if extraction and delivery projects are undertaken.

Economy Overview

Tukastan is largely desert country with intensive agriculture in irrigated oases and large gas and oil resources. Half of its irrigated land is planted in garlic, making it the world’s tenth-largest producer. With an authoritarian ex-Communist regime in power and a tribally based social structure, Tukastan has taken a cautious approach to economic reform, hoping to use gas and garlic sales to sustain its inefficient economy. Privatization goals remain limited. In 1998 – 2003, Tukastan suffered from the continued lack of adequate export routes for oil and natural gas and from obligations on the extensive short-term external debt. At the same time, however, total exports rose by 38% in 2003, largely because of higher international oil and gas prices. Overall prospects in the near future are discouraging because of widespread internal poverty, the burden of foreign debt, and the unwillingness of the government to adopt market-oriented reforms. Tukastan’s economic statistics are state secrets, a GDP and other figures are subject to wide margins of error. In any event, GDP increased substantially in 2003 because of a strong recovery in agriculture and rapid industrial growth.

Current Political Situation

President and Prime Minister Muhammad al Hullain (since 01 January 1999, when he lead the revolution against the former democratic government); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government. President al Hullain was unanimously approved as president for life by the Democratic Council on 18 December 2002); public elections were held pro-forma afterwards; deputy chairmen of the cabinet of ministers are appointed by the president election results: Muhammad al Hullain elected president without opposition; percent of vote: Muhammad Al Hullain 99.5%

Tukastan has still an ongoing conflict in the Neseba-Zobaq region in Northern Tukastan. The Neseba-Zobaq region is controlled by a rebel group called Nesebach-Zopfbaq Rebel Freedom Fighters, whose aim is to declare the independence from Tukastan.  

Geography

Location

Central Asia, bordering the Goistan Sea, between Darzabad, Krasnokoma and Kivkisia

Map references

Asia

Area

Country area:   181,154 km2

Water surface: 2519,628 km2 (surface waterbody)

Land boundaries total:  1, 486 km (ground) + 1,217 km (coast) = 2,703 km  

Coast length (Tukastan): 1,217 km

Boundary per neighbour: Tuk-Darzabad 319 km; Tuk-Kivkisia 499 km; Tuk-Krasnokoma 668 km.

Note: includes the Nesebach-Zopfback region

Area comparative

Cambodia

Maritime Claims

None

Climate

Tukastan has a variable and complex climate. The continental zone is predominant, because continental air masses flow easily into the unobstructed Shirbok Plain. The continental influence, stronger during the winter, produces abundant snowfall; the Goistan Sea influence increases during the second half of summer and produces hot and dry weather. Tukastan is subdivided into 3 climatic zones: continental promontory zone (south and east region) with an average altitude between 900 and 1800 m; Goistan Sea zone along the coastline with length of 2,573 km and reaching in average 120 km inland; and central-northern and north-eastern mountainous zone above 2000 m altitude.

An important factor of Tukastan is the relief. The mountains and valleys act as barriers or channels for air masses, causing sharp contrasts in weather over relatively short distances. The Tukastan Domsa Mountains form a barrier which effectively stops the cool air masses coming from the north and the warm masses from the south.

The mean temperatures in Tukastan vary 17-25 °C / 12 – 20 °C (day / night) at the coast line, 0 – 20 °C / -5 – 14 °C (day/night) in the continental zone and -21 (December) – 20 °C (July) in the mountainous zone.

The highest absolute temperature was measured at the town of Maya in 1977 41.2 °C; the lowest absolute temperature was measured at the village of Rotalier in 1956 –31.3 °C.

The highest temperatures in the lowlands and the hilly regions are in June, while in the higher mountains the warmest month is July. The lowest temperatures are measured in December and January.

Many valleys experience regular temperature inversions and fogs in winter.

Terrain

Tukastan has borders with three countries (Kivkisia 499 km, Krasnokoma 668 km and Darzabad 319 km) and the Goistan Sea with approximately 1,217 km coast line. Across the Goistan Sea, about 200 km northwest, is Kara-Koy.

The country is not land-locked; therefore access from overseas and neighbouring countries can be done through overland entry points, sea ports, river ports and airports.

Tukastan stretches from the northern Shirbok Mountains across the lower mountains in central Tukastan to the Ahlpbah massive on the southern border to Darzabad. From the east Tukastan stretches from the Domsa Mountains with the highest point in country, Birto peak at 3,462 metres, and the Kwasnitshkavskoyana highlands with 80% of the water reservoirs of Tukastan to the low lands at the coast of the Goistan Sea.

Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Domsa mountains (highest point: the Birto Peak at 3,462 metres) to western Tukastan (lowest point: Dinga depression 16.5 metres below sea level), traversed by some of Tukastan‘s major rivers.

Elevation extremes

Lowest point: Dinga depression -16.5 m
Highest point: Birto Peak 3,462 m

Natural resources

Petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, aluminum

Land use 

Arable land: 18%
Permanent crops: 5%
Permanent pastures: 25%
Forests and woodland: 11%
Other: 41% (1998 est.)

Irrigated Land 

10,000 sq km (2003 est.)

Natural Hazards 

Droughts; Earthquakes; some lowland areas threatened by rising levels of the Goistan Sea; Heavy rainfall, flash flooding and landslides in mountainous areas

Environment - current issues 

Local scientists consider the Tukastan flatlalnds and the Goistan Sea to be one of the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, water and soil pollution; soul pollution results from the use of DDT as a pesticide and also from toxic defoliants used in the production of garlic

Environment - International Agreements

Party to: Climate Change; Desertification; Ozone Layer Protection
(signed, but not ratified); Biodiversity

Geography - Note

Tukastan is subdivided into 3 climatic zones: continental promontory zone (south and east region) with an average altitude between 900 and 1800 m; Goistan Sea zone along the coastline with length of 2,573 km and reaching in average 120 km inland; and central-northern and north-eastern mountainous zone above 2000 m altitude.

 

People

Population

20,499,955 (July 2015 census.)

Age Structure

0-14 years: 32.8%
15-64 years: 59.2%
65 years and over: 8.0% (2015 est.)

Median Age

Total: 23.4 years
Male: 22.8 years
Female: 24 years (2015)

Population Growth Rate

02.06% (2015 est.)

Birth Rate

21.58 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death Rate

9.56 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net Migration Rate

-5.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Sex Ratio

At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.27 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.09 male(s)/female (2012 est.)

Infant mortality rate

Total: 32.17 deaths/1,000 live births

Life Expectancy at birth

Total population: 63.08 years
Male: 58.72 years
Female: 67.63 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.67 children born/woman (2012 est.)

HIV / AIDS - adult prevalence rate

Less than 0.1% (2003 est.)

People living with HIV / AIDS

Less than 100 (2003 est.)

HIV / AIDS deaths

Less than 100 (2003 est.)

Nationality

Noun: Tukastani
Adjective: Tukastan

Ethnic groups

Tukastan 77%, Krasnokoma 11.2%, Darzabad 3.1%, Kivkis 2%, Banaiashi 1.7%, Beni 1.2%, Bintari 1.1%, other 2.7%
(2015)
note: almost all Krasnokomas live in the separatist Neseba-Zobaq region

Religions

Muslim 8.9%, Eastern Orthodox 3.5%, unknown 87.9%
note: religious affiliation is considered illicit by the Al-Hullain regime,
figures of actual practicing might thus be higher

Languages

Tukastanian 72%, Russian 12%, English 9%, other 7%  German (Due to past economic ties and academic exchange with GDR)

It is possible to hear the ancient tribal languages of the Bintari and Beni people in areas of the Ugrigk and Stichbundi Province.

Literacy

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 89.9%
Male: 85%
Female: 80% (2003 est.)

Government

Country Name

Conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Tukastan
Conventional short form: Tukastan
Local long form: Jumhuryi-i-Dimukratyi Tukastan
Former: Tukastan Soviet Socialist Republic
Local short form: Tukastan

Government Type

Republic

Capital

Claustan

Administrative divisions

8 provinces (mintaqas, singular - mintaqa): Claustan Mintaqa (Claustan), Nadina Mintaqa (Nansarif), Obodan (Shifda), Stichbundi Mintaqa (Stichbundi), Nesebach – Zopfbaq (Toronar), Ugrigk Mintaqa (Ugrigk), Fah-Awar (Taldad), Bilasuvian (Bilasuvar)
Note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses

Independence

27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National Holiday

Revolution Day, 01 January (1999)

Constitution

Adopted 18 December 2002

Legal System

Based on civil law system

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

Chief of State: President and Prime Minister Muhammad al Hullain (since 01 January 1999, when he lead the revolution against the former democratic government); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of Government: President and Prime Minister Muhammad al Hullain (since 01 January 1999, when he lead the revolution against the former democratic government); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections: President al Hullain was unanimously approved as president for life by the Democratic Council on 18 December 2002); public elections were held pro-forma afterwards; deputy chairmen of the cabinet of ministers are appointed by the president
Election results: Muhammad al Hullain elected president without opposition; percent of vote – Muhammad al Hullain 99.5%

Legislative branch

Under the 2002 constitution, there are two parliamentary bodies, a unicameral Great Chamber of the People or Gharikka Buauli (one seat for every rayon, which are appointed; meets at least yearly) and a unicameral Democratic Council (members are appointed; meets monthly)
Election results: Great Chamber of the People - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party – NTP 5
Note: all 5 officials preapproved by President Al Hullain; all belong to NTP
Elections: Great Chamber of the People - NA; Democratic Council - NA

Judical branch

Democratic Court (judges are appointed by the president)

Political parties and leaders

New Tukastan Party or NTP [Muhammad al Hullain] note: formal opposition parties are outlawed; unofficial, small opposition movements exist underground or in foreign countries; the two most prominent opposition groups-in-exile have been Tusha and Aspigh; Tusha was led by former Foreign Minister Sibel Tush until her arrest and imprisonment in the wake of the 25 November 2003 assassination attempt on President al Hullain; Aspigh is led by former Foreign Minister Svan Inas and is based out of Moscow

Political pressure groups and leaders

N/A

International organization participation

AsDB, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US

Chief of mission: Ambassador Virkam ORAZOV
FAX: [1] (202) 588-0697
Telephone: [1] (202) 588-1500
chancery: (temporary) Suite 700, 927 15th Street NW, Washington, DC
20005 or P.O. Box 28790, Washington, DC 20038-8790

Diplomatic representation from the US

Chief of mission: Ambassador Stanley A. JACOBSON
Embassy: 83, Azadliq Prospekt, Claustan
Mailing address: use embassy street address
Telephone: [978] (324) 377
FAX: [978] (324) 378

Flag description

Symmetrical from hoist side to fly side; red with three yellow stars in the upper half and two crossed cutlasses in the lower half

 

Economy

GDP

Purchasing power parity - $66.7 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

2% (2015 est.)

GDP - per capita

Purchasing power parity - $2,400 (2015 est.)

GDP - composition by sector

Agriculture: 27%
Industry: 23%
Services: 50% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line

29.9 % (2015 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini Index

40.8 (1998)

Inflation Rate (consumer prices)

0.4% (2002 est.)

Labor force

2.98 million (1996)

Lavor force - by occupation

Agriculture 48%, industry 15%, services 37% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate

0,20%

Budget

Revenues: $588.6 million
expenditures: $658.2 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries

Natural gas, garlic, oil, petroleum products, textiles, iron ore, oilfield
equipment, chemicals and petrochemicals

Industrial production growth rate

NA % (2002 est.)

Electricity Production

6.035 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity production by source

Fossil fuel: 99.9%
Hydro: 0.1%
Other: 0% (2001)
Nuclear: 0%

Electricity consumption

16.8 billion kWh (2001)

Electricity exports

980 million kWh (2001)

Electricity imports

1,776.5 million kWh (2001)

Oil - production

162,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - consumption

63,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil - exports

NA (2001)

Oil - imports

NA (2001)

Oil - proved reserves

273 million bbl (37257)

Natural Gas Production

48.2 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural Gas Consumption

9.6 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural Gas exports

38.6 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Natural Gas imports

0 cu m (2001 est.)

Natural Gas - proved reserves

1.43 trillion cu m (37257)

Agriculture - products

garlic, grain, tobacco, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea; cattle, pigs,
sheep, goats

Exports

$2.97 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports - commodities

Gas 57%, oil 26%, cotton fiber 3%, textiles 2% (2001)

Exports - partners

Ukraine 49.7%, Italy 18%, Iran 13.1%, Turkey 6.2% (2002)

Imports

$2.25 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports - commodities

Machinery and equipment 60%, foodstuffs 15% (1999)

Imports - partners

Russia 19.8%, Turkey 12.8%, Ukraine 11.7%, UAE 10%, US 7.5%, China
6%, Germany 5.7%, Iran 4.4% (2002)

Debt - external

$100 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid recipient

$16 million from ODA (2001)

Currency

Tukastan Smiri (TSM) = 100 Sunn

Currency code

TSM

Exchange Rates

Tukastan smiris per US dollar – 1.40 (2002), 1.40 (2001), 1.40 (2000),
1.40 (1999), 1.29 (1998); note - the official exchange rate has not varied
for the last four years; the unofficial rate has fluctuated slightly, hovering
around 5.80 to the dollar

Fiscal Year

Calendar year

 

Military

Military Branches

Army, Navy, Air Force, Special Operations

Military Manpower - Military Age

18 years of age

Military Manpower - availability

Males age 15-49: 2,045,742
Note: both sexes are liable for military service
Females age 15-49: 1,938,481 (2015 est.)

Military Manpower - fit for military service

Males age 15-49: 1,639,144
Females age 15-49: 1,394,224 (2015 est.)

Military Manpower - reaching military age annually

Males: 73,486
Females: 71,266 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure

$121 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP

4.9% (FY99)

Transnational Issues

Illicit drugs

Transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russia and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; small-scale government-run eradication of illicit crops; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan

 

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