Ethiopia is a land-locked country with no direct access to the sea, hence, is dependent on ports in neighbouring countries. The main corridor into Ethiopia is through Djibouti port for commercial, government and humanitarian cargo. 95 % of the goods handled by Djibouti Port are destined for Ethiopia. Alternative ports are Port Sudan and Berbera. Ethiopia is to complete the formal possessing of acquiring land at Sudan to develop its own port.
In different occasions the two countries agreed to develop a port in Sudan that will be an optional sea outlet for land locked Ethiopia. Use of Mombasa port could be an option for southern parts of Ethiopia but is currently not a time- or cost-efficient option. Ports in Southern Somali are not accessible due to the on-going conflict and the ports of Assab and Massawa in Eritrea, Following the agreement reached between the Ethiopia and Eritrea, decision is made to resume telecommunication lines, transport services and trade relations between Ethiopia and Eritrea for the first time in 20 years. In line with this, preliminary preparation has also commenced by the two countries (to repair roads leading to the port and upgrading infrastructural facilities) in order to enable Ethiopia reuse the Port of Assab, and facilitates its sea-borne trades. (https://allafrica.com/stories/201808010242.html) which geographically would have been natural options, are not probable due to the current political climate between the countries.
The Ethiopia Roads Authority (ERA) is responsible for the maintenance of the federal road network of more than 41,000 km across the country which presently includes about 4,400 bridges and 40,600 culverts.
The Djibouti-Ethiopia Railway (Chemin de fer Djibouti-Ethiopien, or CDE) Project consists of a 25 year railway operating concession for the 780 km railway running from Djibouti to Addis Ababa through Dire Dawa. Following the decisions of the Board of Directors, EDR had commenced the Operation and Maintenance activities of the Railway on January 1, 2018 after a general takeover agreement between the EDR and the respective Railway Companies (ERC and SDCF)( https://edr.gov.et/en/about-us.html#).Ethiopia does not have any major river ports. Gambella Region has the Baro River which has been utilized during the rainy season for transporting emergency supplies to the Upper Nile State of South Sudan in 2012 and 2013.