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Disasters, Conflicts and Migration

Natural Disasters

Type

Occurs

Comments / Details

Drought

Yes

During dry season from Dec to Apr

Earthquakes

-
-

Epidemics

--

Extreme Temperatures

--

Flooding

YesDuring monsoonal rains May to Nov

Insect Infestation

--

Mudslides

--

Volcanic Eruptions

--

High Waves / Surges

--

Wildfires

--

High Winds

YesDuring monsoonal rains May to Nov

Other Comments

Environment current issues: illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, most of the population does not have access to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing and over fishing

Man-Made Issues

Civil Strife

Yes

Likely during election years

International Conflict

YesLast happened in 2010/11 due to boundaries dispute with Thailand. Happened also during the civil war until 1993

Internally Displaced Persons

YesCan occur during severe floods

Refugees Present

NoNegligible today. Happened during the civil war until 1993

Landmines / UXO Present

YesStill happens in some rural areas

Other Comments

Cambodia is concerned about Laos' extensive upstream dam construction; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary; in 2011 Thailand and Cambodia resorted to arms in the dispute over the location of the boundary on the precipice surmounted by Preah Vihear temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 and part of a planned UN World Heritage site; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; progress on a joint development area with Vietnam is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands

For a more detailed database on disasters by country, please see the Centre for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters Country Profile

Seasonal Effects on Logistics Capacities

Seasonal Effects on Transport

Transport Type

Timeframe

Comments

Primary Road Transport

May to Nov

There are normally no major consequences to primary road transport, except under heavy rainfall or river flooding some part of the main roads could be cut by water.

Secondary Road Transport

May to Nov

There is not much effects to Secondary road transport which is limited to 6 mt of truck capacity during the rainy season and 8 mt during the dry season.

Rail Transport

 -

There is very limited rail transport in Cambodia. There are no noticeable seasonal effects.

Air Transport

May to Nov

Limited seasonal effects, although heavy rains and strong winds can delay flights.

Waterway Transport

Jan to May

In rainy season there is no major problem with boat transport, but in the dry season some part of the water line cannot be reached due to shallow river levels.

Cambodia's climate, like that of the rest of Southeast Asia, is dominated by monsoons, which are known as tropical wet and dry because of the distinctly marked seasonal differences.

Cambodia has a temperature range from 21 to 35 °C (69.8 to 95.0 °F) and experiences tropical monsoons. Southwest monsoons blow inland bringing moisture-laden winds from the Gulf of Thailand and Indian Ocean from May to October. The northeast monsoon ushers in the dry season, which lasts from November to April. The country experiences the heaviest precipitation from September to October with the driest period occurring from January to February.

There are no major disruption in transport network during the rainy seasons, although exceptional floods and flash floods may disrupt the normal traffic circulation for several hours up to few days. Transporters have often intermodal capacity to switch to boat transportation when needed.

 

Seasonal Effects on Storage and Handling

Activity

Time Frame

Comments / Details

Storage

Jan to Dec

No seasonal effects on storage

Handling

Jan to Dec

Cambodia is still limited to handling mechanization.

Other

N/A

N/A

The handling can be affected during the rainy season because the labour force returns home for farming.

Capacity and Contacts for In-Country Emergency Response

Government

The 2015 Disaster Management law outlines the Government’s response to emergencies, with National Committee for Disaster Management (http://www.ncdm.gov.kh/index_en.php) and its subnational committees responsible for coordination at the national and subnational levels respectively. In support of the government, the well-funded Cambodian Red Cross (http://www.redcross.org.kh/index.php?lang=en) often provides the first assistance and can draw on a wide network of pre-positioned resources and subnational presence.

For more information on government contact details, please see the following link: 4.1 Cambodia Government Contact List .

Humanitarian Community

The Humanitarian Response Forum (HRF) is the coordination mechanism used by the humanitarian community to address responses to small-to-middle scale emergencies (https://www.humanitarianresponse.info/operations/cambodia). The HRF is co-chaired by WFP and Action Aid and allow an efficient and coordinated approach to emergency preparedness and response, information management and resource mapping in the humanitarian sector. The HRF is organised in 6 sectors: Food Security and Nutrition, Water Sanitation and Hygiene, Shelter, Health, Education, Protection, with close collaboration with the Cambodian Red Cross and NCDM.



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