|Table of Contents|
Samoa Humanitarian Background
Disasters, Conflicts and Migration
|Yes / No|
Comments / Details
| periodically occurs in Samoa. It entails major fire risks, and can affect agriculture seriously. A five-month drought in 1972 caused severe damage to crops in Upolu. In 1983, a poor rainfall on Savai’i caused major bush fires. In 1987-1988, a prolonged drought significantly depressed agricultural production and exports. |
In 1997 and 1998,a
lengthydrought again occurred. In the latter year, it lasted
droughts occurred, with one lasting over six weeks on Savai’i, extending over some 200km2
km2. This caused massive fires, and destroyed 80% of food crops.
|Yes||Samoa is frequently affected by earthquakes. Significant earth tremors occur on average four times a year. In recent years, the cost of earthquake damage has been limited. However, the vulnerability of high-rise buildings and hydroelectricity infrastructure to such disasters remains considerable (cracking of pipe work feeding hydro turbines).|
|Yes||Outbreak of Avian Influenza with 2 confirmed cases quickly spreading to affect half of the population, with possibly one third of the population (approx. 55,000) dead within 3 weeks (estimated life of virus). Significant economic impact (reduced workforce), and loss of tourism for a long period. Cost of treatment, funerals, life insurance and NPF payouts crippling for the economy. Destruction of all poultry will be required. Similar effects to 1918 flu epidemic|
A Level One meteorological drought was declared in 2015. Impacts of a meteorological drought include the likely failure of certain weed and grass species due to precipitation deficiency, reduced ground water recharge, reduced surface water flow and water availability, and the increase risk of forest and bush fires. Prolonged drought causes failure of water intakes in rural areas. A lack of adequate water trucks means water supply to these areas is limited. Private contractors’ water trucks are used at significant cost. Crops fail and there are significant economic losses. The environmental impact is high as streams dry up, compounded by needing to take water from them to augment town supply. Villages suffer, as there is limited water storage.
In 1917, a magnitude 8.5+ earthquake occurred some 200 km southwest of Samoa. A repeat of an event of this size is likely to generate peak ground accelerations of 0.1 to 0.2g and correspond with a local felt intensity of Modified Mercalli (MM) VII to VIII. This is likely to cause land sliding and damage to unreinforced buildings. A small tsunami may be generated (as it was for the 1917 event).No major infrastructure damage or loss of life is anticipated. Crops not affected (cf. tsunami or cyclone).
In 1918, approximately 8500 people (one-fifth of the population) died of influenza.
Flooding associated with cyclones and earthquakes (storm surges, tsunamis) has been a source of damage in recent years. Flooding due to other causes (in particular, heavy rainfall) was not a major concern in the past, but it is now occurring with increased frequency, presumably as a result of long-term changes in weather patterns.
|Red Imported Fire Ants are discovered. The ant has a painful bite and makes outdoor living difficult. This impacts on tourism and affects Samoa’s outdoor lifestyle. Small animals are also affected and susceptible infrastructure is at risk. Eradication is difficult and very expensive, as they are usually found after becoming established. An eradication campaign in Queensland (Australia) has cost AUS$75M over 7 years. |
Taro beetle causingTaro
Leaf Blight which seriously affects Samoa’sstable
staple crop(taro). Domestic
, taro, placing domestic food supply and exports at riskas well as exports
. Eradication is difficult andvery
Yes (minor risk)
Landslides in Samoa are usually caused by heavy rainfall. Earthquakes can also trigger landslides. Landslide hazard zoneshave been mapped for the whole of Samoa. Instability of soil has also
and soil instability areas have been mapped for the whole of Samoa. If landslides occur, it is highly likely that majordamages
damage to infrastructure such as roads, water pipes, electricity, and communicationcan
would occur. They are unlikely to cause fatalities as most unstable areas are away from human settlements. There is a lot of quarrying activities which may cause soil instability in the future.
No (but possible)
Explosive eruption on the east-west or north rift zones on Savai’i within the next 50 – 100 years is predicted. It is more likely that areas on the northern half of Savai’i will be more vulnerable to the consequent effects. Damage will be greatest on adjacent flora and fauna, infrastructureand lifelines
, tourism, subsistence agriculture and fisheries, and general property damage. The airportwill
would be closed for prolonged periods (due to ash). No loss of life is anticipated. Some villages may have to be permanently relocated.
High Waves / Surges
No (but possible)
A tsunami with a mean run-up of between 7 and 9 metres has a return period of between 50 and 100 years based on a probability analysis of historical records. Significant damage to unprotected coastal areas will occur. Subsistence crop loss and damage to coastal infrastructure. Fishing industry affected. Significant property damage. Loss of life would be expected for both tsunami generated some distance away (e.g. Chile-Peru region) despite warning of approximately 13 hours, and more significantly for tsunami generated in the region (e.g. Tonga-Kermadec trench) as warning periods will be much shorter.
In drought situations. Large scrub fire threatening one or more villages. Unlikely to cause fatalities as it won’t be that fast moving due to fuels being normally fairly moist. Loss of crops likely. Few structures affected. Fire service resources used to protect villages but no capability to fight fire in rural areas. Potential for it to get out of control, particularly on Savai’i
Cyclones have been the worst external threat to Samoa. Since 1981, there have been over 15 major cyclones with wind speeds ranging from “gale force” (8 events) through “storm force” (2 events) to “hurricane force” (5 events). Three hurricanes (Ofa in 1990, Val in 1991, Heta in 2004) caused massive devastation. In addition to wind damage, cyclones have often resulted in tidal surges, which also caused serious damage. Cyclone Gita in 2018 caused extensive flooding, rivers burst their banks and houses were inundated. More than 200 people needed emergency shelter. .
A state of disaster was declared.
|The || shock to |
The phenomenon of sea level rise is a long-term
issue for Samoa, as virtually all dwelling and economic activity is located along the low-lying coastal belts of Upolu and Savai'i, where serious inundation is likely to happen as a result of any modest rise in the sea level. Related adverse impacts are the erosion of beaches, the destruction of coastal villages and farm land, and damage to coastal roads and other infrastructure. This effect has as yet had no measurable influence, but it is likely to cause socio-economic disturbances in the future.
Other Comments: Samoa is exposed to a number of hazards, some of which are seasonal, such as tropical cyclones, floods and droughts, whilst other present an ever present threat, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruption, tsunamis, epidemics, industrial hazards, and exotic plant diseases.
|Yes||Political stability makes large riots and other major internal unrest unlikely.|
Internally Displaced Persons
Landmines / UXO Present
For information on Samoa - Disaster Statistics - Natural Disasters from 1980 - 2010, please select the following document:
Calamities and Seasonal Affects
For a more detailed database on disasters by country, please see the Centre for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters
Seasonal Effects on Logistics Capacities
Seasonal Effects on Transport
From (month) to (month)
Primary Road Transport
November - April
Paved and sealed road are generally OKto go
through the wet season. Nevertheless, rains on the main roads could make driving a hazard. During the wet season, floods, flash floods and landslides may happen, resulting in roads, crossroads or bridges closures. Wet / cyclonic season last from November to April. Power lines running along road verges occasionally cause blockages when brought down by high winds.
Secondary Road Transport
|Secondary Road Transport|
November - April
The secondary roads network is often not in a perfect condition and may be quickly affected byrainfalls
rainfall, makingit impracticable overnight
them temporarily impassable. During the wet season, floods, flash floods and landslides may happen, resulting in roads, crossroads or bridges closures.November - April
|January - January|
November - April
Generally reliable allover the
year. Heavy rain falls / cyclonesmay
occassionally impactthe air
air transport operations, resulting in delays, flights cancellations and temporary airports/airstrips closures. The secondary airstrips may beimpracticable
unusable at times during the wetseasons
November - April
Interislands waterways transport may be affected during the wet / cyclonic seasons, sometimes during days.
|November - April|
Seasonal Affects on Storage and Handling (economic, social, climate…)
From <month> to <month>
. Main Port of Apia is affected by swells (Oct. – March) resulting in delays to berthing and unloading.
There are generally no seasonal constraints or pinch points. Heavy rainfall and high winds during the cyclonic season are the likely issues.
Seasonal Effects on Storage and Handling
Comments / Details
November - April
During the wet / cyclonic seasons, days of torrential rain may flood roads, cut power and water supplies, closing accesses to transport and storage infrastructures, impacting handling / packaging operations and making access of manpower problematic. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to forecast and anticipate those constraints.
November - April
November - April
During the wet / cyclonic seasons, days of torrential rain may flood rivers, bridges and roads, cut power and water supplies, closing accesses to villages or even small towns and triggering a state of emergency.
There are no other seasonal affects than the weather related ones
Capacity and Contacts for In-Country Emergency Response
The core structure is based on the DMO and DAC forming the focal point for co-ordination and implementation of all disaster mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery programmes and activities. DAC sub-committees are established to coordinate the planning, development and implementation of specific issues pertaining to disaster risk reduction, preparedness, response and recovery. The TORs are developed and appended to this plan for the required sub-committees. The figure above illustrates how the sub-committees fit in the organisational structure before, during and after a disaster and or emergency event. During disaster response DAC co-ordinates and manages response activities from the National Emergency Operations Centre and reports to the NDC for direction and decision making as required. The National Disaster Council is responsible for oversight and approval of all disaster management activities, as advised by DAC.
For information on the National Disaster Council, the Disaster Advisory Committee, on international organisations & development partners and on the community, please select the following document:
International assistance for response or recovery
International assistance arrangements relevant to the NDMP will normally fall into one or other of the following categories:
- Direct participation in response operations. For example, use of specialist aircraft or personnel (e.g. United Nations Disaster Assessment and Co-ordination (UNDAC) teams)
- Provision of urgent relief supplies: For example, provision of emergency food and medical supplies; provision of tents for temporary shelter.
Longer term assistance programmes, though they may be related to immediate response operations in some ways, are managed by the Aid Co-ordination Committee.
Requests for international assistance can only be submitted to aid agencies and donors on the direction of the National Disaster Council and when it has become clear that the situation at hand is beyond the capabilities of the existing national resources.
The DAC is to collate the requests of DAC agencies for presentation to the NDC, and to advise the NDC on the need for international assistance and the availability of that assistance if it has been offered.
After a formal request for assistance has been approved by NDC, the Aid Co-ordination Committee will be responsible for liaising directly with international aid agencies and donors to determine the type, quantity and distribution of assistance required. For example if an UNDAC team is required the UN Resident Coordinator is to be contacted.
When aid has arrived, the Aid Co-ordination Committee will be accountable to the aid agencies/donors for ensuring that all relief assistance is distributed in accordance with the guidelines governing the provision of such assistance, and for the preparation of a report on expenditure/distribution of assistance provided by each donor.
The actual distribution of aid to communities for functions such as shelter, food and clothing is to be co-ordinated by the DAC, in accordance with the findings of the detailed needs assessments that were carried out.
Arrival of international aid
The Aid Co-ordination committee is responsible for providing information on donors’ assistance to Customs and Agriculture & Fisheries personnel to facilitate the necessary arrangements for clearance of all donors assistance being provided for disaster relief purposes. This information is to include details on the type, quantity, source and means of transportation, arrival point, and estimated time of arrival of such assistance
Goods purchased locally with disaster relief funding are to be exempt of duty.
Government has been proactive in working toward a coordinated emergency management programme involving all response agencies to deal with emergencies and disasters. It has emergency response plans in place to deal with rapid onset disasters. The Ministry for Natural Resources and Environment (MNRE) has oversight for The National Disaster Management Office (NDMO), which works with National Emergency Services and Response Agencies such as Police, Fire and Ambulance in addition to humanitarian agencies including United Nations organisations and other NGO’s to increase the capacity and capability of the country to respond and recover from disasters.
Government organisations also coordinate with NZ and Australian Military Forces through the NDMO if their assistance is required. National organisations have monthly coordination meetings and at least bi-annually conduct national response exercises.
For more information on government contact details, please see the following link: 4.1 Government Contact List
There are a number of humanitarian organisations present; Red Cross, Adventist Disaster Relief Association, Caritas, and the UN agencies; UNICEF, WHO, FAO.
Their activities are coordinated through the NDMO.
For more information on humanitarian agency contact details, please see the following link: 4.2 Humanitarian Agency Contact List