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Table of Contents

Disasters, Conflicts and Migration

Natural

Disasters

Hazards

Type

Occurs

Comments / Details

Drought

Yes

Drought

Droughts in Mozambique

is

are relatively chronic and determined by the rainfall patterns as well as by its spatial and temporal distribution. It occurs every 2-3 years in the

central

centre region

,

and

every

5-7 years in the southern region.

Prolonged dry spells can easily lead to drought conditions, particularly in remote areas where agriculture is still

very

much dependent on rain. According to FAO,

drought

droughts in Mozambique will be more common in

the

future and the country must brace for it.

Earthquakes

Yes

Mozambique is situated at the southern end of the East African Rift Valley, a major global fault line.  Although seismic activity is not frequent in the country, in February 2006 an earthquake of 7.2 magnitude struck central Mozambique, 220 km southwest of Beira.  In the past year, four earthquakes have occurred in the central region of Mozambique, with a magnitude of 5.1-5.6.  Earthquake preparedness has become a priority for contingency planning.

To monitor earthquakes, Mozambique has five seismographic stations in Nampula, Tete, Manica, Lichinga and Changalane.

Epidemics

Yes

HIV/AIDS

The HIV/AIDS pandemic is a slow onset emerging disaster and

is

considered a major public health concern.  According to UNAIDS, in 2016, Mozambique had 83,000 new HIV infections and 62,000 AIDS-related deaths. There were 1,800,000 people living with HIV (12.3%), with prisoners being the most affected (24%). 54% of the people living with HIV were accessing antiretroviral therapy.

Since 2010, new HIV infections have decreased by 24% and AIDS-related deaths have decreased by 46%.

Malaria

Despite advances in the fight against the disease, Mozambique is one of the countries where the malaria index is still high,

making it

constituting one of the major public health problems of Mozambique.  The most affected victims are pregnant women and children under 5 years.

Between 2016 and 2017, the number of cases increased

by

17% (8.5 million in 2016 to 10 million in 2017), representing today 45% of care in outpatient health units.  However, the number of deaths in health units caused by malaria

dropped by

went down 33% in the same period, according to data from the Ministry of Health.

Cholera

Cholera has always been present in

Mozambique

Moçambique.  During the period 1992 – 2004,

registered

notified cases of cholera represented nearly 30% of all cases reported in Africa.  In 1998, over 40,000 cases were registered, with 1,353 deaths (Case Fatality Rate - CFR = 3.2%).

More recently

,

from 14 August 2017 through 11 February 2018, 1,799 cases and one death (CFR = 0.06%) of cholera were reported from the two northern provinces of Nampula and Cabo Delgado.  Earlier in 2017 (Jan

.

to Apr

.

) a total of 2,129 cases and four deaths (CFR = 0.19%) were reported in Tete, Nampula, and Maputo provinces.

Typically, cholera outbreaks occur during the period of Dec

.

– June, coinciding with the rainy season.  Risk factors contributing to the propagation of cholera include a shortage of potable water and

the

contamination of household drinking water

; these emphasise

, which emphasize the need to improve access to clean water, adequate hygiene, and sanitation.

Extreme Temperatures

No

 

Flooding

Yes

Flooding scenarios in

Mozambique

Moçambique have a pattern with regard to their timing and geographic locations.

Flooding

  It occurs every two to three years along the seven major river systems that cross the country, namely (from north to south)

, the

: Licungo, Zambezi, Púngue, Buzi, Save, Limpopo and Incomati rivers.  The extent of flooding depends on the amount of rainfall in the country and in neighbouring countries where these rivers originate.

Floods usually happen from November to March in the southern region and from January to April in the central and northern regions.

In 2000-01,

Mozambique

Moçambique experienced its worst flooding in 50 years, affecting over 570,000 people. Approximately 700 people were killed, 1,400 km² of arable land was affected and 20,000 herds of cattle were lost.  Three rivers exceeded their banks, all in the south of the country, namely

, the

: Incomati, Umbeluzi and Limpopo rivers.

In January 2013, heavy rains have hit southern Provinces of Mozambique and neighbouring countries. This resulted in massive flood across the Limpopo basin in Gaza Province and, consequently leaving 97 fatalities and 213,000 affected people in need.    

Insect Infestation

Yes

Cases of insect infestation have been reported in crops and

are

is recognised as a constraint to increased crop yields.  According to the Government spokesperson, earlier in 2018

,

pests and disease sweeping through Mozambique have destroyed at least a third of the country’s agricultural crops.

Mudslides

Yes

Natural geological hazards such as landslides, debris and mudflows have caused, and will continue to cause, problems in Mozambique. Most events are mainly triggered by tropical cyclones that are accompanied by heavy rainfall.  Earlier this year, at least 17 people were killed after heavy rain triggered a mudslide at a garbage dump in Maputo.

Volcanic Eruptions

No

 

High Waves / Surges

No

 


Wildfires

No

 


High Winds

Yes

Tropical cyclones frequently visit the coastal regions of Mozambique. These severe weather systems originated in the Indian Ocean

and

bring high winds and heavy rains, causing widespread flooding and damage to houses, roads, crops, and livelihoods. The cyclone season is from November to April with the most intense storms occurring in the period February – April.

A comprehensive cyclone early warning system was created in early 2000. The country now

harnesses

harness available satellite imagery and rainfall estimates to monitor storm tracks and impending flood conditions. An easy-to-understand, color-coded warning system has been put in place to inform citizens in advance of the arrival of the storm. Community radio stations have also proved to be effective to relay warning transmissions. Countless lives have been saved since the creation of this early-warning system.

Between March and April  2019, Centre and north of Moçambique was hit by two subsequent CAT 4 tropical cyclones, Idai and Kenneth.

Tropical Cyclone Idai made landfall in the central province of Sofala near Beira city. The cyclone brought torrential rains and high winds to the Sofala and surrounding provinces, as well as to the eastern Zimbabwe’ provinces. This resulted also in flash flooding destruction of livelihoods and proprieties, as well as lifting  more than 600 people dead and affecting approximately 1.85 million people in Mozambique alone. Tropical cyclone Kenneth made its landfall in the north Province of Cabo Delgado. With wind gusts up to 220km/h, it was considered the strongest cyclone ever hit the African continent. It left 374,000 people in need and three deads.

Other Comments

 


Man-Made Issues

Civil Strife

No

Yes

Localised and sporadic rioting can occur

,

but it does not constitute a major problem.

International Conflict

No

  


Internally Displaced Persons

No

Yes

Since October 2017, the Islamic State-linked group Ansar al-Sunna, also known locally as Al-Shabab or *mashababos *(the local popular name for Al-Shabab), has attacked villages, killed more than 2,500 people, and destroyed property and infrastructure, including schools and health centers, in Cabo Delgado province in northern Mozambique. Since April 2020 and following an escalation in violence, more than 826,000 people have been displaced.

Refugees Present

Yes

The number of refugees and asylum seekers in Mozambique has risen from 26,000 in 2015

,

to over 40,000

by

in mid-2018.  Most of the refugees come from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Rwanda and Somalia.  Most refugees live in the Maratane centre, in the province of Nampula.

The cost of maintaining the refugees is very high, since most of them are dependents and have no skills. The Government, UN and other international organisations, provide assistance to the refugees

,

and efforts are being made to endow them with skills that would enable

them to generate

generation of their own income. Maratane

Centre

centre covers an area of over 2,000 hectares, some of which could be used for productive activities, notably agriculture.

Currently, 2,357 children in Maratane are enrolled in primary school and 397 in secondary education.

Landmines / UXO Present

No

Mozambique was considered one of the most mined countries in the world but,

but

25 years after its civil war ended, the Government announced late last year, that the country was free from the threat of landmines, meaning there are no more known minefields in the country.

Other Comments

 

 



For a more detailed database on disasters by country, please see the Centre for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters.

 

Seasonal Effects on Logistics Capacities

Seasonal Effects on Transport

Transport Type

Time Frame

Comments / Details

Primary Road Transport

Nov-Apr

Heavy rain and surface flooding can affect roads throughout the country.  However, primary roads are the least affected and only if extreme weather conditions occur.

Secondary Road Transport

Nov-Apr

Unpaved secondary roads, several of them with drift river crossings become impassable

, even

with relatively small amounts of rain. However

,

most rivers tend to drain quickly after a few days without rain.

Rail Transport

Nov-Apr

Railway lines usually do not suffer much during the rainy season because usually they are elevated and built on an embankment with drainage system.  However

,

traffic delays may occur.

Air Transport

Nov-Apr

Air transport is not affected by seasonal weather.  Most airports are in good condition, well paved and constructed to allow

proper

good drainage.

Waterway Transport

Nov-Apr

Waterways have distinct seasonal variations.  During the wet season they tend to become swollen and flooded and during the dry season water levels decline

,

making it difficult to find paths in which to navigate.

Seasonal Effects on Storage and Handling

Activity Type

Time Frame

Comments / Details

Storage

Nov-Apr

During the rainy season, more frequent aeration is required due to increased humidity inside warehouses.  Insect infestation can increase during the rainy season.

Handling

Nov-Apr

Open-air handling of food commodities is not advisable during the wet season for obvious reasons

,

; thus

is

being restricted to covered loading and unloading bays.

Other

Nov-Apr

In some cases, when transporting food from coastal areas in Mozambique and South Africa that need to cross highlands, commodities may be affected by condensation.

...

Capacity and Contacts for In-Country Emergency Response

...

Government

The National Disasters Risk Reduction Management Institute (INGC INGD http://www.ingc.gov.mz/) is the Government institution responsible for the coordination of disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Mozambique, through the implementation of measures, such as:

  • Appropriate communication and information system;
  • Early warning systems; and
  • Development of policies, strategies, legislation and operational plans aimed at the prevention, mitigation, relief and rehabilitation of the economic and social fabric.

The National Disasters Management Institute INGD is geared to four main areas of action, namely the coordination of:

  • Prevention and mitigation of disasters;
  • Development of arid and semi-arid zones;
  • Emergency response; and
  • Post-disaster reconstruction.

For more information on government contact details, please see the following link: 4.1 Government Contact List

...

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HUMANITARIAN COMMUNITY

...

Humanitarian Community

Since the early days after independence, Mozambique has been a destination for many humanitarian agencies because of the extent of the humanitarian and relief work required after the colonial war.  It became even more so when the tension raised very high in late 70’s and subsequent civil war and acts of sabotage that disrupted the economic activity in the country.  With the peace agreement in early 90’s the focus of the humanitarian assistance could finally begin to shift to development. Nowadays Mozambique is well into a different stage of social and economic development with increased foreign investment and a growing national business community , the Mozambique humanitarian community is primarily focused on development. increasingly well prepared and stronger that can and do contribute to the welfare of the population as well.

For more information on humanitarian agency contact details, please see the following link: 4.2 Humanitarian Agency Contact List

...

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