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  • Orientation - angle of the solar panel with the north-south axis. solar panels must face the south in the northern hemisphere and the north in the southern hemisphere.
  • Tilt - angle of the solar panel with the horizontal plan. Tilt is more difficult to optimize. Latitude can be used as an approximation of the optimal tilt angle, as referenced in the guide below for panels with fixed angels. However, even on the equator panels should have a minimum tilt angle of 5 to 10° to avoid accumulation of water and dust on the panel.

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The output of the solar panels is connected to the solar regulator, while the output of the solar regulator is connected to the batteries. The solar panel mounting frame is connected to the ground, and a grounding/earthing connection may be required for the regulator and surge protector as well.