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PWM

Controller

MPPT

Controller













Charge Method

3 stage

PWM 

Battery Charge

Multi-Stage MPPT

Conversion Rate
75%-80%

Turn Solar to Electricity

99%

Size
20A-60A

Ampere Rate

30A -100A

Scalability

<2KW

Small solar system

Product Range

>2KW

Large power system


Cost
65$

Average Price

120$
PWMMPPT
Advantages
  • PWM Regulators have a longer and proven history.
  • PWM Regulators have simpler structure and are more cost-effective.
  • Easily deployed.
  • Maximum power point tracking algorithm increases power conversion rate up to 99%.
  • 4 stage charging is better for batteries.
  • Scalable for large off-grid power system.
  • Available for solar systems up to 100 Amps.
  • Available for solar input up to 200V.
  • Offer flexibility when system growth required.
  • Equipped with multiple protection devices.
Disadvantages
  • Low conversion rate.
  • Input voltage must match battery bank voltage.
  • Less scalability for system growth.
  • Lower output.
  • Less protection.
  • High cost, usually twice a PWM.
  • Larger Size than a PWM regulator.

Panel Installation

This section will focus on connecting batteries to the solar system. Please reference the section on battery installation

For a proper installation of a solar array, ideally the The storage location of the solar array connected batteries should be identified before sizing and purchasing the any equipment. Not only should the space be large enough to mount the required panels, the distance and cable length from the battery storage location will impact the calculated power requirements. Please reference the section on battery installation

A good spot location to install a solar array will have the following characteristics:

  • Inside the Be inside a compound and not visible from the outside. Ground mounted solar panels ideally should be protected by a wall or fence, so sufficient ground space is important.
  • Arrays should be Be as close as possible to the battery system.
  • Be away from shadingshade, such as trees or buildings.

Sometimes it is difficult to completely avoid shadesshaded areas. The priority should be to avoid shades shade during the sunny hours sunniest hours  of the day (generally 10am to 16pm). Remember that the positions position and sizes of shadows change with the seasons.

Solar Panel Position

To optimise energy production, solar panels must be carefully oriented to take full advantage of sunlight exposure. Solar panel pointing includes.

  • Orientation -  Orientation is the angle of the solar panel with relative to the north-south axis. solar Solar panels must face the south in the northern hemisphere and the north in the southern hemisphere.
  • Tilt - Tilt is the angle of the solar panel with relative to the horizontal plan. Tilt is more difficult to optimizeoptimise. Latitude can be used as an approximation of the optimal tilt angle, as referenced in the guide below for panels with fixed angels. However, even on the equator panels should have a minimum tilt angle of 5 to 10° to avoid accumulation of water and dust on the panel.

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The output of the solar panels is connected to the solar regulator, while the output of the solar regulator is connected to the batteries. The solar panel mounting frame is connected to the ground, and a grounding/earthing connection may be required is highly recommended for the regulator and surge protector as well.

Depending on the power or energy required, the panels can follow three different schemes that will give different power and current results. Connect the modules Modules connected in series, parallel, or a combination of both will give different power and energy outputs.

Installation Sizing

PV Modules

A Below is a simple method of sizing installations so that it produces they produce 30% of the daily energy needs during the worst month.months of the year:


Example: To cover 30% of the energy needs of an installation, how many solar panels will be needed for:

  • A planned power need of 12,880Wh
  • An annual average daily production is 4.32kWh per 1kWp
  • During the worst month, an average daily production of 2.62kWh per 1kWp

The total actual power production needed per day is: 12.88 x 0.3 = 3.87kWh

At an average daily production of 2.62kWh per 1kWp of module, the total daily need is: 3.87 / 2.62 = 1.48kWp

The actual number of solar panels required will depend on the peak-power of each individual panel. The configuration could be:

  • 12 x 130Wp panels (1.56kWp)
  • 9 x 180Wp panels (1.62kWc)
  • 6 x 260Wp panels (1.56kWc)

As there is an annual average daily production is 4.32kWh per 1kWp, 1.48kWp installation will produce 4.32 x 1.48 = 6.39kWh per day in yearly average, adding to the overall increased energy costs savings.

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The solar regulator must be sized according to the number and type of solar modules used. Regulator sizing includes:

  • The voltage should be the highest possible according to the number of solar modules in the systems.
  • Maximum current should be equal to the short-circuit current (ISC) of your solar array. Short circuit current for one individual panel can be found on the identification tag of the panel or in the manufacturer manual. To calculate the short-circuit current of an entire array, combine the short-circuit currents of all panels connected in parallel.

Batteries

Information about Batteries sizing can be found in the section on installing a battery system.

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Whenever persons must handle a PV solar panels , they must wear the proper protective clothing and equipment at all times.

More importantly - PV solar panels produce an electrical current, even when they are not connected to any other device! As long as a panel is partially exposed to light, it will be producing some form of current and can still pose a risk.  A panel producing electricity will not make a noise or vibrate, and may not even be warm to the touch. Usually PV solar panels have no form of indicator light that they are producing electricity at all. For this reason, PV solar panels tend to look safe to the touch, while even when they may not be. 

When installing, removing, or simply adjusting solar panels, they should be completely covered. If possible, work can also be done at night time. When carrying or handling solar panels, handlers should note all electrical connector outputs on the side, avoiding making accidental contact with them. Consider all wires coming from a solar panel as the same as a live wire coming from a powered grid or live generator.

Security

PV Solar panels should always be in a secure location, just like generators and batteries. The orientation of buildings and vegetation may make this a difficult task, but planners should consider access control.

  • If possible, install panels on roofs of buildings, and in areas where persons do not frequently visit - avoid roof top terraces or resting areas.
  • Install solar arrays inside of compound spaces, inside the safety of a perimeter wall wherever possible. Even if arrays are inside a compound wall, there should be some form of signage and barrier fencing to prevent visitors or casual labour from accessing the area. 
  • If solar arrays are installed in the open or in remote locations, then a separate security fence or wall will need to be built around the outside. The equipment is expensive, but it can also harm humans and animals passing by. Persons unfamiliar with solar panels may be drawn close out of curiosity, so signage must be posted in the appropriate local language. 

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