Ethiopia - 1.1 Ethiopia Humanitarian Background


In 2022 Ethiopia has faced multiple overlapping humanitarian crises, putting at risk the lives and livelihoods of millions of people and driving continued high and urgent needs for humanitarian support. The 2023 Ethiopia Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) requires US$3.99 billion to target more than 20 million people across the country. This includes an estimated 4.6 million internally displaced people (IDPs) In 2023, the prioritized humanitarian response is structured around three strategic objectives, aiming to address immediate lifesaving needs, provide safe and inclusive access to essential services, and contribute to support and build linkages towards recovery and resilience.

Although the end of 2022 brought about peace and improved access in Northern Ethiopia (Afar, Amhara and Tigray) with the signing of the cessation of hostilities agreement (COHA), humanitarian needs stemming from a two-year conflict are still high, and increased support is required to facilitate returns and scale-up recovery efforts. Conflict has continued or escalated in other parts of the country, most notably in Oromia, impeding humanitarian access and driving high needs and displacement within the region and to neighbouring Amhara region. In Benishangul Gumuz region, hundreds of thousands of people remained displaced for most of 2022.

Geologically, the Great Rift Valley is susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, frequent droughts, flooding in the river basins and deforestation. Nomadic pastoralists are people on a continuous move, and they run into possible conflict with the semi-nomadic pastoralists and neighbouring settlers. Population growth and the concentration of population in major urban centres will put further pressure on the already overburden public infrastructure and water resources. The lack of social services and infrastructure, basic health, modern education and clean water in outlying areas leads to increased migration of people to urban areas. Drought among all hazards has the single greatest impact on social and economic conditions in Ethiopia.

Disasters, Conflicts and Migration

Natural Hazards



Comments / Details



Jul 1965, Sept 1969, Dec 1973, May 1983, Jun 1987, Oct 1989, Jul 1998, Sept 1999, Nov 2005, 2003, May 2008, Jan 2009, 2015, 2022



Earthquake (seismic activity) 25/08/1906



1970, 1981, 1985, 1989 (Meningitis), 2020 (COVID-19)

Extreme Temperatures





1968, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2022

Insect Infestation


2004 and 2019-2021 (locusts)

Mar 2017 (armyworm)



September - Oct 2019 (SNNPR)

Volcanic Eruptions


Ertale in Afar Region (Rift Valley) (1967 to present), Dabbahu (2005), Dalaffilla (2008), Manda Harraro (2009)

High Waves / Surges





Baley Mountain National Park

High Winds




Additional information


Man-made Issues



Comments / Details

Civil Strife



International Conflict


Ethiopia vs Eritrea (1998-2000)

Internally Displaced Persons


  • The HRP 2023 lists some 4.6M internally displaced people, with most IDP movements being due to conflict and social tensions.


Refugees Present


Ethiopia hosts over 823,000 refugees and asylum seekers, predominantly from South Sudan, Somalia and Eritrea.


Landmines / UXO Present


UNMAS identified 35 confirmed hazardous areas measuring 6,340,538 m2 and 226 suspected hazardous areas measuring 1,05,045,013 m2. Areas at risk are mostly in Somali, Tigray and Afar regions.


Other Comments


 According to the February 2023 WFP Ethiopia Market Watch, the average consumer price index (food inflation) rose to 32% The same source reports that diesel and benzene subsidies were gradually being removed and prices were revised upwards.…

According to the 2023 Humanitarian Response Plan   20.1 million people estimated to be in need of humanitarian assistance, including in the sectors of food, agriculture, WASH, health, education, nutrition, protection and ES/NFI.


Calamities and Seasonal Affects

Seasonal Effects on Transport



From (month) to (month)

Primary Road Transport

Meher season: All regions (Largest percentage of rainfall)

June to September

Secondary and Tertiary Road Transport

Gu seasonal rains in the Somali Region

April to June

Meher seasonal rains (largest percentage of rainfall)

June to September

Dayr seasonal rains in the Somali Region

October to December

Road Transport

During the fertilizer season, transport solutions are mobilized nationally as required by the government for the transportation of fertilizers, which causes limited availabilities of transporters for other commodities, including for humanitarian cargo. Generally, due to late arrival of cargo the pressure on the Djibouti corridor is built Jan onwards. In 2023, due to availability of foreign exchange, significant decrease in commercial and Government imports have been observed.

November -May

Rail Transport



Air Transport



Waterway Transport




Seasonal Effects on Storage and Handling

Activity Type


Time Frame

Comments / Details



November to December

Supplies to the markets of newly produced food crops is relatively higher during this season, which is likely to increase demand for storage facilities and daily laborer.



September to October

Cultural and religious events such as Ethiopian new year, the finding of the true cross (Maskal), and Errecha (yearly socio-religious festival among Oromo ethnic group) affect handling operations due to mobility of daily laborers to take part in celebrations.



March – June

The level and frequency of stock infestation can be higher during this time than other periods due to high humidity and related climate factors.

Capacity and Contacts for In-Country Emergency Response


The Ethiopia Disaster Risk Management Commission (EDRMC), formerly known as the National Disaster Risk Management Commission (NDRMC), was formed in 2014 replacing the Disaster Risk Management Food Security Sector (DRMFSS).

The Commission is accountable directly to the Prime Minister’s offices and the National Disaster Risk Management Council chaired by the Prime Minister and has members designated by government including the heads of lead sector institutions.

For more information on government contact details, please see the following link: 4.1 Ethiopia Government Contact List.

Humanitarian Community

The overall humanitarian coordination is led by the government’s Ethiopia Disaster Risk Management Coordination Commission (EDRMC), which leads federal and regional level Disaster Risk Management Technical Working Groups (DRMTWG), co-chaired with OCHA.

4.2 Ethiopia Humanitarian Agency Contact List

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