Taxis around cities are moderately priced, at around DZD 35 per kilometre travelled. Taxis between cities or across large distances either cost the same or are more expensive than flying. Most taxis don't come with a meter, meaning prices per kilometre must be agreed prior to travel. There are numerous taxi companies throughout Algeria. Auto Go (+213-02-127-8438) is based in Algiers along with many other official services like Taxi Haned Ammar and Algiers Taxi. Kheiro (+213-77-556-3067) which is placed in Tlemcen.
According to the 2013 BP Statistical Energy Survey, Algeria had 2012 electricity production of 57.39 Terawatt-hours, a change of 10% from 2011 and equivalent to 0.25% of the world total.
Algeria has over 140,000 miles of power lines, serving almost the entire population. There are plans to increase the size of the network by 5% in coming years in order to reach isolated rural communities and hydrocarbon developments in the Sahara Desert. As mentioned above, Algeria does export some electricity to its neighbours, and there are plans to export electricity to Europe. Algeria has proposed undersea power connections to Italy and Spain, likely to run in conjunction with natural gas pipelines. However, Algeria's ability to export electricity in the future will depend upon its ability to build enough generation capacity to meet soaring domestic demand.
State-owned Sonelgaz controls electricity generation, transmission, and distribution in Algeria. A 2002 law converted Sonelgaz into a private company and revoked its monopoly on the power sector, though the Algerian government continues to hold all of the company's shares. The 2002 law also created the Electricity and Gas Regulatory Commission (CREG) to oversee the newly-opened industry and to ensure non-discriminatory access to the sector. Algeria aims to eventually split Sonelgaz into separate generation, transmission, and distribution companies, though those plans have faced domestic opposition from organized labour. Following privatization, Sonalgaz created a joint venture with Sonatrach, the Algerian Energy Company (AEC), in order to pursue partnerships with foreign investors.
In July 2002, Sonatrach and Sonelgaz formed a joint venture, New Energy Algeria (NEAL), to pursue the development of alternative electricity sources, including solar, wind, and biomass. One project reportedly under consideration is a 120-megawatt (MW), hybrid gas/solar power plant near Timimoun. In January 2003, Algeria and the International Energy Agency agreed on technological cooperation in developing solar power. Overall, Algeria hopes to increase the share of solar in the country's electricity mix to 5% by 2010.
Natural gas is the largest source of Algeria's electricity generation. Since the opening of the sector in 2002, there has been considerable private investment in new electricity generating capacity. Algerian law requires that all foreign operators establish joint ventures with AEC, and in return, AEC guarantees that it will purchase all electricity generated by these plants. AEC contracted with Anadarko and General Electric to build the country's first privately-financed, gas-fired power plant at Hassi Berkine. In August 2003, France's Alstom agreed to construct a 300-MW power plant at F'Kirina, some 300 miles east of Algiers. Canada's SNC-Lavalin won a contract in July 2003 to design and build an 825-MW, combined cycle power plant in Skikda, expected to come online in the third quarter of 2005. In 2004, SNC-Lavalin also won a tender to build a 1,200-MW, combined cycle power plant in Tipasa, west of Algiers. In early 2005, Siemens announced that it would build a 500-MW, gas-fired plant in Berrouaghia
In general power supply in the main towns is reliable. Average disruption of electricity supply in Tindouf can be estimated at around 2/3 hours per week with some 1 to 2 cuts per week with a possibility of increase at summer time. The main problem though at Tindouf is the instability of the voltage/current; accordingly voltage stabilizers are required there, which is not the case at Algiers. Generator (40 KVA) was recently installed at Tindouf sub-office.
Solid waste generation in Algeria
In this paper, classifications of solid wastes have been proposed according to its origin into three types: municipal solid waste (MSW), industrial solid waste (ISW), and healthcare solid waste (HW).
According to the National Cadastre for Generation of Solid Waste in Algeria, the quantity of MSW generated in Algeria is estimated at 10.3 million tons/year (household and similar waste). The overall generation of ISW, including non-hazardous and inert industrial waste, is 2,547,000 tons/year with a stock quantity of 4,483,500 tons. The hazardous waste generated amounts to 325,100 tons/year. The quantities of waste in stock and awaiting a disposal solution amount to 2,008,500 tons. Healthcare waste reaches to 125,000 tons/year according to the same source.
Municipal solid waste
MSW is generally defined as waste collected by municipalities or other local authorities. It includes mainly household (domestic waste), commercial, and institutional wastes (generated from shops and institutions). These wastes are generally in solid or semi-solid form. It can be classified as biodegradable waste that includes food and kitchen waste, green waste, and paper (can also be recycled); recyclable materials such as paper, glass, bottles, cans, metals, certain plastics, etc.; inert waste such as construction and demolition wastes, dirt, rocks, and debris; composite waste which includes waste clothing, tetra packs, and waste plastics such as toys; domestic hazardous waste (also called ‘household hazardous waste’); and toxic waste like medication, e-waste, paints, chemicals, light bulbs, fluorescent tubes, spray cans, fertilizer and pesticide containers, batteries, and shoe polish.
According to the National Waste Agency (AND), Algeria produces 10.3 million tons of MSW each year or 28,219 tons per day, with a collection coverage of 85% in urban areas and 60% in rural areas, and a rate of 0.9 kg/inhabitant/day for urban zones and 0.6 kg/inhabitant/day for rural zones. In the capital (Algiers), the production is close to 1.2 kg/inhabitant/day
The composition of MSW is closely related to the level of economic development and lifestyle of the residents. In different districts of the same city, the composition of MSW will be different. In general, the composition of MSW in Algeria with six major categories of waste was identified: organic matter, paper-cardboard, plastics, glass, metals, and others
Organic matter was the predominant category and represented 62% of waste collected. The other categories were represented as follows: paper-cardboard (9%), plastic (12%), glass (1%), metals (2%), and others (14%) Demolition and construction wastes were not taken into account because they are disposed in uncontrolled open-air sites. The high consumption of fruits and vegetables by the city’s inhabitants could explain the preponderance of organic matter in Algeria’s waste.
Industrial solid waste
According to the National Cadastre for Industrial and Special Wastes prepared in 2007, the overall generation of industrial waste, including non-hazardous and inert industrial waste, is 2,547,000 tons per year with a stock quantity of 4,483,500 tons. This type of waste is generated from the following:
The hazardous waste which includes waste oil, waste solvents, ash, cinder, and other wastes with hazardous nature (such as flammability, explosiveness, and causticity) generated amounts to 325,100 tons/year. The quantities of waste in stock and awaiting a disposal solution amount to 2,008,500 tons, which are generated by four principal sectors: hydrocarbons (34%), chemistry, rubber and plastic (23%), metallurgy (16%), and mines (13%). Compared to textile (4%) as well as paper and cellulose cement and drifts, food and mechanics produce less than 2%.
The eastern regions hold the palm for the production of ISW in Algeria, with the wilayas of Annaba and Skikda which are characterized by a high proportion of waste generated and in stock (the petrochemical, transportation, and hydrocarbons industries of these regions). The western region is in the second position, because the industrial area of Arzew is the largest generator of waste with 65,760 T/year only for its refinery, followed by the industrial area of Ghazaouet with 18,500 T/year. The central region is characterized by the high production of lead waste (manufacture of battery and refinery)
These wastes include materials like plastic syringes, animal tissues, bandages, cloths, etc. This type of waste results from the treatment, diagnosis, or immunization of humans and/or animals at hospitals, veterinary and health-related research facilities, and medical laboratories. HW contains infectious waste, toxic chemicals, and heavy metals, and may contain substances that are geno-toxic or radioactive. HW reach 125,000 tons/year, of which 53.6% is general waste, 17.6% is infectious waste, 23.2% is toxic waste, and 5.6% is special waste, with waste generation rate 0.7 to 1.22 kg/bed/day, in which 75% to 90% is non-clinical waste and 10% to 25% is clinical waste
Waste management situation in Algeria
During the past decades, environmentally sound waste management was recognized by most countries as an issue of major concern. Waste management is an important factor in ensuring both human health and environmental protection
Policy and planning: The Ministry of Land Planning and the Environment (MATE) is primarily responsible for national policy environment.
Implementation and operation: AND has the mission to support the local communities in SWM and to promote activities linked to integrated waste management.
Practice of waste management:
1. Municipalities are fully responsibility for the management and control of municipal solid waste.
2. The Ministry of the Interior and Local Communities is for financial and logistical support to the municipalities.
Control and regulatory implementation: The Directorate of Environment of each wilaya (governorate) controls and regulates the implementation of the management services.
Staff training: The National Conservatory for Environmental Training does the staff training.
Policy and planning
Municipal Solid Waste Management National Program (PROGDEM): Launched in 2001, it has already made the development of many SWM projects (municipality master schemes, landfills, etc.) possible.
Industrial and Special Waste Management National Program: This program aims at the control and disposal of special industrial waste and potentially infectious healthcare waste.
Solid waste management
In general, elimination is the solution applied to 97% of waste produced in Algeria. Wastes are disposed in open dumps (57%), burned in the open air in public dumps or municipal uncontrolled ones (30%), and controlled dumps and landfill (10%) insuring both human health and environmental protection. on the other side, the quantities destined for recovery are too low: only 2% for recycling and 1% for composting
Open dump mode: In Algeria, the elimination of household and similar wastes through the implementation of open and uncontrolled dumps is the most common mode used, with a rate of 87%. According to an investigation by the Office of Ministry of Land Planning and the Environment, over 3,130 open dumps have been identified in the country with an area of approximately 4,552.5 ha. The majority of these dumps are characterized by almost similar geographical locations. They are located along rivers, roads or agriculture lands. The other common point is that most of these dumps are almost saturated and cannot practically receive waste.