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The road network in Nepal is categorized into the strategic road network (SRN), which comprises of highways which run east to west (Mid hills HW, Postal roads or Mahendra HW) or north to south (like Tribhuvan highwayRatna highwayBhimdatta highway, Karnali HW), and feeder roads which connect the highways, and the Local Road Network (LRN), comprising of district roads and urban roads 

Poor road connectivity and road quality is a major constraint hindering access to communities and markets in Nepal. The road density of the Strategic Road Network is 8.76 km/100 km2, and of the Local Road Network is 39 km/100 km2 or 2.18 km per 1,000 people (Source: Department of Roads & Dolidar2015/2016). The strategic road network, with a total length of about 12,898 km (2015/2016) of national highways and feeder roads, is the core of Nepal’s road system. It carries most of the country’s road traffic and provides linkages to major economic centres and neighbouring countries.  

Federalisation of Nepal has led to the decentralisation of responsibility for maintenance of the local road network.

Source: Road Network Data (Department oRoads) 

The SRN network consists of three main east-west corridors and several north-south corridors. The east-west highway, Mid Hill East-West Highway and Postal Roads in Terai.  

Distance Matrix 

Download the map as PDF: Road Distance Map 

Distance from Capital City to Major Towns (km) 

 

Kathmandu 

Biratnagar  

Birgunj  

Sonauli 

Nepalgunj  

Ilam 

Pokhara  

Dhankuta 

Kathmandu 

 

391 

146 

286 

507 

539 

197 

451 

Biratnagar 

391 

 

312 

511 

754 

180 

515 

92 

Birgunj 

146 

312 

 

251 

501 

530 

265 

369 

Sonauli 

286 

511 

251 

 

283 

729 

192 

568 

Nepalgunj 

507 

754 

501 

283 

 

902 

405 

814 

Ilam 

539 

902 

530 

729 

902 

 

663 

225 

Pokhara 

197 

405 

265 

192 

405 

663 

 

575 

Dhankuta 

451 

814 

369 

568 

814 

225 

575 

 

Travel Time from Capital City to Major Towns (hours) 

 

Kathmandu Kalanki 

Kakarbhitta 

Biratnagar 

Birgunj 

Hetauda 

Bhairahawa 

Nepalgunj 

Dhangadhi 

Kathmandu Kalanki 

 

9.5 

8 

3 

2 

7 

10 

14 

Kakarbhitta 

9.5 

 

2.5 

8 

8 

12 

17 

20 

Biratnagar 

8 

2.5 

 

6 

6 

10 

15 

19 

Birgunj 

3 

8 

6 

 

1 

5 

10 

13 

Hetauda 

2 

8 

6 

1 

 

6 

9 

12 

Bhairahawa 

7 

12 

10 

5 

5 

 

5 

8 

Nepalgunj 

10 

17 

15 

10 

9 

5 

 

4 

Dhangadhi 

13 

20 

18 

13 

12 

8 

4 

 

Karnali Province 

The East-West Highway (EWH, 1,024 km) is the main traffic artery in the country but does not traverse Karnali province. The juncture with the EWH at Kohalpur along Ratna Rajmarg is 87 KM away from Karnali Province’s capital, Birendranagar 

The last 40km of the Ratna Highway from the border at Bheriganga Municipality, Surkhet with Bardiya district joins Province 5 with Karnali Province’s capital. The Karnali Highway (233km) traverses Surkhet, Dailekh, Kalikot, and Jumla crossing Mid Hill EW Highway at Sahijyula, Dailkeh. The Mid-hill EW highway which is 1,776 km long extending from Panchthar to Baitadi is the parallel highway which will provide an alternative to EW highway through hills. 278 km of Midhill highway traverses Dailekh (125 km), Jajarkot (83 km) and West Rukum (70 km) from SahijyulaDailekh to Ghorkhani in West Rukum. 176 km of Rapti Highway connects Salyan and West Rukum with EWH in Ameliya, Dang of that 124 km traverses Salyan and West Rukum from Salyan district border with Dang district till Musikot. At Musikot it meets Midhill EWH.  

Road Network in Karnali Province 

Distance Matrix (Karnali Province) 

Distances from BirendranagarSurkhet to Major Towns (km) 

 

Surkhet 

Chhinchu 

Dullu 

Dailekh 

Manma 

Nagma 

Jumla 

Gamgadhi 

Chaurjhari 

Jajarkot 

Rukum 

Salyan 

Surkhet 

 

29  

85.8 

94.6 

160 

210 

243 

251.5 

 

105 

135 

90 

Chhinchu 

29 

 

112 

121 

186 

236 

269 

327.5 

 

76 

106 

61 

Dullu 

85.8 

112 

 

23.5 

83 

132 

165 

223.5 

 

190.8 

220.8 

175.8 

Dailekh 

94.6 

121 

23.5 

 

106.5 

172 

205 

263.5 

 

199.6 

229.6 

184.6 

Manma 

160 

186 

83 

106.5 

 

50 

83 

174.5 

 

265 

295 

250 

Nagma 

210 

236 

132 

172 

50 

 

33 

91.5 

 

315 

345 

300 

Jumla 

243 

269 

165 

205 

83 

33 

 

124.5 

 

348 

378 

333 

Gamgadhi 

251.5 

327.5 

223.5 

263.5 

174.5 

91.5 

124.5 

 

 

406.5 

436.5 

391.5 

Chaurjhari 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jajarkot 

105 

76 

190.8 

199.6 

265 

315 

348 

406.5 

 

 

60 

105 

Rukum 

135 

106 

220.8 

229.6 

295 

345 

378 

436.5 

 

60 

 

45 

Salyan 

90 

61 

175.8 

184.6 

250 

300 

333 

391.5 

 

105 

45 

 

 

 Travel Time from BirendranagarSurkhet to Major Towns (hours)  

 

Surkhet 

Chhinchu 

Dullu 

Dailekh 

Manma 

Nagma 

Jumla 

Gamgadhi 

Chaurjhari 

Jajarkot 

Rukum 

Salyan 

Surkhet 

 

1.25 

4 

4.5 

6.5 

7.75 

9 

14.25 

 

5.5 

6.75 

3.75 

Chhinchu 

1.25 

 

5.5 

5 

7.75 

9 

10.25 

15.50 

 

4 

5.5 

2.5 

Dullu 

4 

5.5 

 

2 

4.5 

7 

6.5 

13.5 

 

9.5 

10.75 

7.75 

Dailekh 

4.5 

5 

2 

 

5.5 

7 

8 

11 

 

10 

11.25 

8 

Manma 

6.5 

7.75 

4.5 

5.5 

 

2.5 

3.5 

8 

 

12 

13.25 

10.25 

Nagma 

7.75 

9 

7 

7 

2.5 

 

1.5 

6.5 

 

13.25 

14.5 

11.5 

Jumla 

9 

10.25 

6.5 

8 

3.5 

1.5 

 

8 

 

14.5 

15.75 

12.75 

Gamgadhi 

14.25 

15.50 

13.5 

11 

8 

6.5 

8 

 

 

19.75 

21 

18 

Chaurjhari 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jajarkot 

5.5 

4 

9.5 

10 

12 

13.25 

14.5 

19.75 

 

 

6 

9 

Rukum 

6.75 

5.5 

10.75 

11.25 

13.25 

14.5 

15.75 

21 

 

6 

 

3 

Salyan 

3.75 

2.5 

7.75 

8 

10.25 

11.5 

12.75 

18 

 

9 

3 

 

Known obstacles and bridges in Karnali province 

Construction of Bridge on Karnali Highway on the way to Manma


Construction of bridges on the lengths of highways could delay the movement but are not a hindrance. Numerous bridges are being constructed.  

The district of Humla is not yet connected with any road network. A project to link the Humla with Karnali Highway is under progress in Kalikot district. A special travel arrangement could be made in the form of the ferry to carry vehicles across the Karnali river but that is not possible during the rainy season. 

Dolpa is also not accessible through a connecting road. The government is attempting to link the roadway to Dolpa, Dunai. The road is linked to Rukum, Jajarkot districts. The road is 118 km long, of which 73 km road construction has been completed.  

Sudurpashchim Province 


The East-West highway is the lifeline to all 9 districts in Sudurpashchim province. The road networks joining province capitals Kailali and district headquarter, Kanchanpur, south of the East-West highway and other seven districts headquarter with north of East-west highway are accessible but the problem of inundation in Terai and frequent landslide often pose severe access constraints during the monsoon season. Puspalal Mid hill Highways is in the construction process but at a slow pace. 

Strategic Road Network of Sudurpaschim Province 

Source: Road Network Data (DoR) 

Distance Matrix (Sudurpashchim Province) 

Distances from Dhangadhi to Major Towns (km) 

 

 

Kailali 

Kanchanpur 

Dadeldhura 

Baitadi 

Darchula 

Bajang 

Doti 

Bajura 

Achham 

Kailali 

 

63.5 

155  

182 

328 

280 

200 

340 

306 

Kanchanpur 

 

 

203 

221 

368 

320 

240 

380 

346 

Dadeldhura 

 

 

 

36.6 

173.26 

116 

45 

185 

151 

Baitadi 

 

 

 

 

157 

102 

71 

221 

177 

Darchula 

 

 

 

 

 

249 

281 

358 

324 

Bajang 

 

 

 

 

 

 

161 

301 

267 

Doti 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

140 

106 

Bajura 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

52.3 

Travel Time from Dhangadhi to Major Towns-hour  

 

 

Kailali 

Kanchanpur 

Dadeldhura 

Baitadi 

Darchula 

Bajang 

Doti 

Bajura 

Achham 

Kailali 

 

 

 

7 

10 

9 

7 

12 

10 

Kanchanpur 

 

 

7 

7 

12 

11 

8 

13 

12 

Dadeldhura 

 

 

 

2 

6 

4 

2 

7 

6 

Baitadi 

 

 

 

 

5 

4 

3 

8 

7 

Darchula 

 

 

 

 

 

9 

10 

12 

11 

Bajang 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6 

10 

9 

Doti 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5 

4 

Bajura 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 


Known obstacles and bridges in Sudurpashchim province 

 

Rocky section of F154 in Bumramadichaur joining Nagma to Gamgadhi, Mugu 


The SRN connecting districts of Karnali Province are relatively unobstructed by landslides. But numerous bridge building activities have diverted roads into small rivulets, which can delay traffic and can be temporarily obstructed during the monsoon season.  


Landslide and flood-prone area in a different location throughout the Sudurpashchim province    

Address 

GR/Map sheet 

Latitude   

Longitude  

Hazard and Risk  

Remark  

Kakada 

46709130 

N29° 47'08''  

E80° 26'09''  

Landslide 

Mahakali highway  

Kimtadi  

53559990 

N29° 49'32''  

E80° 30'07''  

Landslide 

Mahakali highway  

Khaulchaura 

46879012 

N29° 44'01''  

E80° 27'05''  

Landslide 

Mahakali highway  

Terselake  

50759012 

N29° 44'20''  

E80° 29'09''  

Landslide 

Mahakali highway 

Dudhali Gard  

52578957 

N29° 46'28''  

E80° 30'48''  

Landslide  

Mahakali highway  

Baitadi 

NA 

N29° 39'158''  

E80° 31'229''  

Landslide 

Baitadi Road  

Baitadi -Bangabagar 

NA 

N29. 664634'  

E80.545070'  

Flash flood  

Mahakali Highway 

Bajura-DwariKailashmandu  

NA 

 N 29.399555 

E81.393506 

Landslide  

Bajura Road  

Lalmatiya Bhaluwang- Dang  

NA 

N27.837510 

E82.763178 

Road damage- east-west highway  

Due to irrigation project  

Province 2 

The East-West Highway runs longitudinally across the Province 2. All major cities of the province are connected to the highway. Janakpurdham, Rajbiraj , Birgunj andGaur lie 25, 10, 24 and 42 km south of the Mahendra Highway, respectively. The Tribhuvan Highway is an important to link as it connects the province to Kathmandu and to India. The starting point of Tribhuvan Highway i.e. Birgunj is the most important international gateway and trade way for this province and the entire country and hence as the Tribhuvan Highway is also referred to as "The Gateway of Nepal". Birendra highway which is connected to Mahendra highway from headquarter of Rautahat district Gaur to the Chandranigahpur (the largest city of Rautahat) is 42km in length. However, to access the capital of Province 2, Janakpur city from Kathmandu the fastest suggested route is the Bisheshowr Prasad Koirala (BP) highway till BardibasMahottari and then 1 h 12 min (43.9 km) via E - W Hwy/AH2 and Dhulikhel Sindhuli Bhittamod Rajmarg. 

Strategic Road Network of Sudurpaschim Province and Administrative division

Source: reliefweb.int 

Distance Matrix (Province 2) 

Distances from Janakpur City to Major Towns (km) 

Province-2 Capital 

Janakpur  

Birgunj  

Kalaiya 

Gaur 

Malangawa  

Jaleshower  

Siraha 

Rajbira 

Janakpur  

 

157 

143 

136 

52 

20 

83 

120 

Birgunj  

 

 

20 

105 

115 

177 

195 

230 

Kalaiya  

 

 

 

125 

135 

199 

215 

250 

Gaur  

 

 

 

 

55 

155 

175 

210 

Malangawa 

 

 

 

 

 

45 

130 

165 

Jaleshower  

 

 

 

 

 

 

90 

125 

Siraha 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

82 

Rajbiraj 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Travel Time from Janakpur City to Major Towns-hour  

 

Janakpur  

Birgunj  

Kalaiya 

Gaur 

Malangawa  

Jaleshower  

Siraha 

Rajbira 

Janakpur  

 

4 

3.5 

3 

2 

1 

2 

2.5 

Birgunj  

 

 

0.5 

2.5 

3 

4 

4.5 

5 

Kalaiya  

 

 

 

3 

3.5 

4.5 

5 

5.5 

Gaur  

 

 

 

 

1.5 

2.5 

3.5 

4 

Malangawa 

 

 

 

 

 

1 

3 

3.5 

Jaleshower  

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 

3 

Siraha 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 

Rajbiraj 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Road Security 

The risk posed by the treacherous slope of mountains, the narrow width of the lanes, sharp corners and negligence and inexperience of drivers lead to approximately 4,622 annual traffic fatalities (WHO:2018). Road quality and frequent construction projects partially act as a control mechanism to limit speeding. Motorcycle accidents are frequent.

General strikes, or Bandhs, can involve blockage and shutdown of major roads. It is advisable to avoid travel during these strikes.

Weighbridges and Axle Load Limits 

The Department of Roads (DoR) is empowered to set the limitation of vehicle weight and to control the movement of overloaded vehicles on roads. Considering the increasing problem of overloaded vehicles and its direct impact on the life and function of roads, bridges, and road safety, the DoR has prepared a separate Heavy Vehicle Management Policy (HVMP) 

However, no weighbridges are installed and operated by DoTM at present. The Federation of Truck Transport Entrepreneurs Nepal (FTTEN) is operating fifteen (15) weighbridges in major freight routes. However, heavy trucks still contribute to accelerated wear and erosion of the surface condition of the road network. 

Medium-sized trucks (seven to ten-ton payload) operate over two-lane asphalt roads at relatively low average speeds, in the range of 200 to 400 km per day. The movement of containers on the Nepal roadways is limited due to the terrain and condition of the roads. Most of the trucks used in cross-border movements are 2-3 axle (six or ten wheel) trucks carrying payloads up to 18 mt. Trucks carrying bulk cargo are generally overloaded, causing additional damage to roads. 


Axle Load Limits 

LCA Country (NEPAL) 

Transit Country (INDIA) 

Truck with 2 Axles (heavy truck) 

16 MT 

19 MT 

Truck with 3 Axles (Multi-Axle Truck) 

25 MT 

28.5 MT 

Road Class and Surface Conditions 

The DoR, within the Ministry of Planning and Works, is responsible for overseeing all of the roads within Nepal. Their focus is on the Strategic Road Network.  

The Nepal Road Standards of 2027, 1st Revision-2045 state four distinct road classifications: 

  1. Strategic Road Network (SRN): 
    • National highways (NH) 
    • Feeder roads (FR) 
  2. Local Road Network (LRN) 


International Corridors Leading to the Country  

The following are the most actively used transport corridors: 

  • Karachi – Lahore – New Delhi – Nepalgunj – Kathmandu (3,147 km) 
  • Kathmandu – Kakarvitta – Phulbari – Banglabandha – Mongla (1,362 km) 
  • Kathmandu – Kakarvitta – Phuntsholing – Thimpu (1,011 km) 
  • Kathmandu – Kolkata / Haldia (1,323 km) 
  • Kathmandu – Bhairahawa – Sunauli - Lucknow (663 km) 
  • Biratnagar – Kolkata (689 km) 

 

Red: Highway, Yellow: Feeder Road 

 

Surface / Road conditions 

  1. Ratna Highway is a highway in western Nepal that crosses the districts of Banke and Surkhet in a south to north direction. The 113.08 km highway starts at Nepalgunj, where it depicts a continuation of National Highway 927 of India and runs towards the North, where it crosses Mahendra HighwayatKohalpur. The highway continues north and leave the Terai Plains, crosses Babai River and terminates in Birendranagar, from where Karnali Highway continues northwards. It is two-lane, black-topped highway in good condition.   
  2. Karnali Highway is a vital transport link between two regions in Nepal. This highway links the towns of Jumla, the Karnali capital, and Surkhet. Karnali Zone is the largest, remotest and the least developed zone in Nepal. In general, the highway has two-lanes; the highway is both black-topped and earthen, and construction is still under progress.  
  3. Feeder Roads (Nagma to Gamgadhi): Earthen, Work in Progress, Rocky Terrain 
  4. Bhimdutta Highway (Dhangadi – Dadeldhura): Blacktopped, Good condition. 
  5. Midhill Highway is a under-construction highway in the hilly regions of Nepal which will run all the way from Chiyabhanjyang (Panchathar) in the east to Jhulaghat (Baitadi) in the far-west for about 1,765 km. This highway will run somehow parallel to the present East-West Highway (1,024 km) which runs through plain area. About 1,000 km road of Mid-hill hw is already in existence in different names whereas above 750 km is new construction for which all tracks have been opened already.  
  6. B.P. HighwayThe BP Highway, also known as the Banepa Bardibas Highway, is a highway in CentralNepal. It links Kathmandu Valley with the CentralTerai region.  
  7. Postal Roads across Terai: Also referred to as the Hulaki Rajmarg runs across the Terai region of Nepal, from Kechana KawalJhapa in the east to DodharaKanchanpur in the west, cutting across the entire width of the country.