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Overview

Among ASEAN countries, Myanmar’s roads are the most underdeveloped. Although the road network expanded to 148,690 km (92,392 mi) as of March 2012 from 90,713km in 2004, road density remains among the lowest in the region. Only 39% (57,840 km) of the network is paved and 61% (90,850 km) unpaved, with the secondary and local road network generally in poor condition and not passable during the monsoon season. The government of Myanmar has two ministries controlling transportation: Ministry of Rail Transportation and the Ministry of Transport. The Ministry of Construction is responsible for construction and maintenance of roads, bridges and airports. Only 26% of roads (39,083 km) fall under responsibility of the Ministry of Construction.

All roads are under the management of Ministry of Construction. However, government may engage with private companies on BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) basis. In such case, the responsibility of maintaining the road condition lies with the operator company.

With continuous improvements that have been undertaken on the expansion and upgrade of Myanmar road network, there is a gradual shift of cargo and passenger movement to road transportation as shown by the increasing volume of road transport assets and the diminishing volume of cargo on waterway and railway transportation on certain major routes or domestic corridors where road transport infrastructures have improved and/or arterial road network expansion has taken place.

The entrance of international logistics companies into Myanmar is driven by the economic opportunities that are present in the country. With continuous increase in export and import activities, and importation of larger fleets into the country, there has been reported a steady decrease of freight costs per ton over the last decade as observed on major route of Yangon to Mandalay which accounts for 60-70% of trucking volume in the country.

Transport market remains fragmented with services concentrated among a handful of large companies with limited trickle-down effect to small and medium haulers with older and smaller fleets. This hopefully changes with the arrival international companies and the emergence of local trucking technology-based platform that connects cargo owners with smallholder transport providers. Another key factor that signifies progress is the opportunity offered by allowing more competition in the fuel provision market by offering entrance to foreign fuel providers. This will reform the fuel market towards higher efficiency and ultimately attracts the availability of new, more efficient trucks in the country.

Due to unequal distribution of economic activities across the country, empty backhaul is a common challenge that impedes progress in transport cost reduction since vehicles productivity maximization is therefore limited.

Humanitarian organizations generally transport cargo by road as road network continues to be upgraded, particularly on the main highway line between Yangon and Mandalay, which is the busiest line in the country. In the North and Central Rakkhine, a higher reliance on waterway transportation given challenges on the road due to potential closures due to sporadic flooding or extremely poor conditions. 

NB -  1 Since December 2016, there has been a ban on truck access for the Yangon metropolitan area

 The ban for heavy trucks from 0600 to 2100 daily is being implemented by the government for the roads listed below in Yangon:

  • Strand Road
  • Bayintnaung Road
  • Lower Minglardon Road
  • Danyingone Junction
  • Yadanar Road (Shwe Pyi Thar)
  • Waizayantar Junction
  • Aungzeya Road
  • Pearl Road
  • Kayaybin Road
  • Pyinmabin Road
  • No.3 Highway
  • Botahtaung Pagoda Road
  • Maha Bandoola Bridge
  • Shukinnthar Road
  • Ayeywarwun Street
  • Bago River Street
  • Kanaung Minthargyi Road

In terms of general traffic rules, there are a few points to note:

There are twelve types of driving license, including international driving license. To drive passenger city cars (up to 3 tons), B-type license is required. D-type license allows you to drive all types of registered vehicles, except commercial trucks and buses. E-type license allows you to drive all types of registered vehicle, including commercial trucks and buses. For further detailed information in this regard, please visit http://www.rtad.gov.mm.

Myanmar does not have cross-border agreement to allow trucks from neighbouring countries to operate inside Myanmar and vice-versa; and a number of border crossings do not allow vehicles to cross as well.  But Thailand border cross gate is slightly improved as cargo trucks are allowed to enter till Myawaddy gate (Myanmar) and Mae Sot gate (Thailand) by registering at the respective gate for a period of one week.

Primary Roads in Myanmar

  • 1 – 1577 km: Runs from Myawaddy (Thai border)-Thaton-Payagyi-Nay Pyi Taw-Meiktila-Mandalay-Gangaw-Kale-Tamu (India border) (AH-1).
  • 2 – 804 km: Runs from Tachileik (Thai border)-Keng Tung-Taunggyi-Meiktila-Mandalay-Gangaw-Kale-Tamu (India border) (AH-2).
  • 3 – 90 km; Runs from AH-2 at Keng Tung-Mongla (PR China border) (AH-3).
  • 4 – 460 km: Runs from Mandalay-Lashio-Muse (PR China border) (AH-14).
  • 5 – 250 km: Runs from Thaton-Mawlamyine-Dawei-Myeik-Kawthaung (AH-112).
  • 6 – 196 km: Runs from Yangon-Kyaunggon-Pathein (Western Union highway).
  • 7 – 279 km: Runs from Yangon-Tharrawaddy-Pyay (Route 2).
  • 8 – 134 km: Runs from Dawei-Sinbhyudaing (Tikee) (to Thai border) (AH-123).

In case of emergencies, the primary supply corridors and main border crossings are:

  • AH-1: North-West to South-East: from North-East India, Guwahati to East Thailand, Bangkok. Border crossing at Tamu (India) and Myawaddi (Thailand).
  • AH-2: Connecting at AH-1 central to East: North Thailand, Chiang Rai. Border crossing at Tachileik (Thailand).
  • AH-3: Connecting at AH-2, North-East: China, Kunming. Border crossing at Mongla (China).
  • AH-14: Connecting at AH-1 central to North East: China, Kunming. Border crossing at Muse (China).
  • AH-123: The border crossing at Tikee is used by locals for cross-border trade but requires special permission for foreigners to cross; it has been used by UNHCR. There is another border crossing in Kayin state near Ye (Mon state) the “Three Pagoda Pass”, which remains closed.

 

AH-1: The Yangon-Mandalay expressway or Bagan highway is the only expressway in Myanmar featuring a double carriageway and four lanes in good condition on its entire length of 587km. This express way runs from Yangon via Naypyitaw, Meikthila to Mandalay. Trucks are not allowed to use this expressway and must use the old Yangon-Mandalay highway instead, which runs parallel to the Bagan highway.  The AH-1 road section between Kale and Tamu has sections  47 bridges with 13 and 24MT weight limit. The condition of the bridges is generally poor.

With improvements made in recent years, the condition of the old Yangon-Mandalay highway is now good. This road is two lanes wide in most places and four lanes in some parts close to Yangon and Mandalay. Private cars rarely use this route because the Bagan highway is shorter, this road is mostly used for cargo traffic.

Route-2: The Yangon-Pyay highway is in good condition.

AH-14: The Road from Mandalay via Lashio to Muse is in acceptable condition. This road was extensively renovated the last ten years to handle the heavy traffic of Myanmar-China border trading. This road now serves as one of the most important trade route in Myanmar.

 The Yangon-Pathein highway, or Western Union Highway (196km from East to West) and the Pathein to Magway highway (Pathein-Kyanggon (near)-Oke Shit Pin-Datkon (junction)-Magway) (484km from South-West to North) are both primary roads in good condition.

 Apart from these major highways and roads in Central Myanmar, most of the other roads in the coastal regions of Myanmar in the West and South, and in mountainous area’s in the East and North are secondary roads that are in poor conditions. These roads are mostly only one lane wide with a large proportion of unpaved dirt and gravel roads that are often not passable during monsoon season with risk of landslides at various points along the route due to terrain conditions or lack of maintenance. The tarmac surface along these secondary roads is applied manually, resulting in inconsistent, non-durable and of lower quality pavement due to potential poor work standards. Many parts of these secondary roads have cracks and at risk of heavily damaged by passing overloaded / heavy trucks and/or due to exposure to rains and poor drainage. The average speed along these secondary roads is observed to be about 30-40 km/hour for trucks and 4-wheel drive vehicles mainly due those road conditions. These secondary roads are not recommended for city cars.

Traffic density between towns and cities is generally lower across Myanmar compared to its neighboring countries. Narrow bridges where vehicles need to take turn to pass are still commonly found along the coastal roads. Since traffic density in the rural area is low, this is generally not (yet) a problem for cargo traffic.

Road safety remains a risk: speed limits are generally unknown or not applied and high density of motorbikes in towns combined with inexperienced drivers and a general disregard for pedestrians, results in a high incidence of serious accidents (17,451 traffic accidents; 5,184 fatalities with more than 26,000 injuries reported in 2018). Overland travel can be hazardous, particularly in the rainy season (May to October). Roads can become impassable and bridges damaged.

 

Ministry in Charge

Contact Names, Address & Email

Telephone & Fax

Ministry of Transport
Building No (5), Nay Pyi Taw
Myanmar.

Name: U Zaw Win Myint

Title:Director General

Address: DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT
Ministry of Transport and Communication
Building No (5), Nay Pyi Taw
Myanmar.

Email: dept.transport@mptmail.net.mm

Web:http://www.mot.gov.mm/dot/organization.htm

Tel: +95-1 293038, 067-411033

Fax: +95-1 202837, 067-411420

Summary of Role and Services

Report on implementing the objectives of long and short term plans perform by the Departments and Enterprises for roads under the Ministry of Transport. Monitoring the GDP growth rate of the Ministry which estimated by the states. Scrutinize projects which carried out by foreign loans and focused on foreign exchange income of concerned Departments and Enterprises. To consult general administration and records of Departments, Enterprises, University and Institute under the Ministry of Transport. Taking responsibility in relation with the international and regional organization to co-operate all the action plans under the transport sectors.

  To formulate transport policies and monitor the impacts of policy initiatives

  To ensure that agreed transport policies are reflected in the laws and regulations governing the sector.

  To monitor transport costs, prices and the efficiency of the transport system.

  To co-operate the action plans of the international and regional organizations (e.g. ASEAN,  BIMSTEC, ACMECS, GMS).

 To have efficient promote for human resources development relate of the transport sector.

 

 Reference:

ADB (publisher) Myanmar unlocking the potential, Aug 2014, http://www.adb.org/publications/myanmar-unlocking-potential

JICA (publisher) Myanmar’s National Transport Master Plan, 24 July 2014, http://www.jica.go.jp/english/news/field/2014/140828_01.html

Ministry of Construction (publisher) Plenary meeting road infrastructure development, 30 Oct 2013, http://www.jica.go.jp/english/news/field/2014/140828_01.html

 

For contacts of the relevant ministries for the road network, see the following link: 4.1 Myanmar Government Contact List.

 

Distance Matrix

Travel Distance and time from Yangon to Major Cities

City

Region

Distance (Km)

Travel Times (hr)

Nay Pyi Taw

Naypyitaw

363

4 hr 30 min

Mandalay

Mandalay

622

7 hr 30 min

Distances and Travel Time from Yangon to Major Towns
From Yangon toDistanceTravel Time
Pyapon (Ayarwaddy Division)130 km3 hrs
Bogale (Ayarwaddy Division)178 km5 hrs
Maubin (Ayarwaddy Division)90 km3 hrs
Kyaik Latt (Ayarwaddy Division)128 km4 hrs
Laputta (Ayarwaddy Division)260 km6 hrs
Pantanaw (Ayarwaddy Division)100 km2 hrs

Pathein (Ayarwaddy Division)

200 km5 hrs
Hygiekyun (Ayarwaddy Division)364 km10 hrs

Gwa (Rakkhine)

342 km6 hrs

Thanwe (Rakkhine)

475 km11 hrs

Tongup (Rakkhine) *via Gwa Road

555 km
15 hrs

Kyauk Phyu (Rakkhine)

748 km21 hrs

Ann (Rakkhine)

691 km21 hrs

Myauk U (Rakkhine)

1,118 km29 hrs

Kyuak Taw (Rakkhine)

1,152 km30 hrs

Pone Nar Kyun (Rakkhine)

1,224 km32 hrs
Sittwe (Rakkhine State)900 km36 hrs
Magway (Magway Division)520 km7 hrs
Naypyitaw (Naypyitaw Division)370 km5 hrs
Mandalay (Mandalay Division)633 km7 hrs
Shwe Bo (Sagaing Division)710 km9 hrs
Bago (Bago Division)90 km2 hrs
Meik Tila (Mandalay Division)509 km6 hrs
Kyaik Hto (Mon State)166 km3 hrs
Mawlamyine (Mon State)zone)332 km6 hrs
Mudon (Mon State)360 km6.5 hrs
Than Phyu Zayat (Mon State)416 km7 hrs
Ye (Tanintharri Division)600 km8 hrs
Dawei (Tanintharri Division)670 km114 hrs
Myeik (Tanintharri Division930 km22 hrs
Kaw Thaung (Tanintharri Division1370 km34 hrs


Road Security

Road safety awareness, among both drivers and pedestrians, is very low. Many vehicles, including taxis, are in a poor mechanical state. Although Myanmar drives on the right, most cars are right-hand drive since they were imported from Japan, which makes driving, especially overtaking, hazardous. International Driving Licenses are not recognized in Myanmar. Every driver is required to apply for a Myanmar Driving License at the Department for Road Transport and Administration in Yangon, including diplomatic missions.

Weighbridges and Axle Load Limits

Main roads in Myanmar have toll-gates with weighbridges where all trucks must be weighed. Weighbridges are not yet present on all routes, in those cases cargo weights are estimated. Myanmar has introduced the axle load limits that are standard in all ASEAN countries and by it is implemented this ASEAN standard. 

Type of truck

Axle load limit

With 2 axles and common 6 tyres

16 MT

With 3 axles and common 10 Tyres

23 MT

With 4 axles and common 12 Tyres

30 MT

With 4 axles and common 14 Tyres

33 MT

With 5 axles and common 18 Tyres

46 MT

With 6 axles and common 22 Tyres

51.5 MT

Road Class and Surface Conditions 

There are 5 types of road classifications in Myanmar. They are categorized as

  • Express Way (E)
  • National Highway (NH)
  • Main Arterial Road (A)
  • Asian Highway (AH)
  • Sub Arterial Road (S)

Classification

Road Description

Class:  Primary Roads

Broad, wide roads : 2 lanes to 4 lanes wide, tarmac or concrete paved. Maximum speed 50-100 km/hr.

Class:  Secondary Roads

Connecting main cities, often in poor condition, mostly 1 lane wide and sometimes 2 lanes wide. Partially paved (tarmac) partially dirt/gravel.
Maximum speed 30-60 km/hr.

Class:  Tertiary Roads

Connecting small cities and villages, 1 lane wide, often in poor condition, unpaved, dirt roads. Maximum speed 10-30 km/hr.

Class:  Tracks

Connecting villages, very narrow, less than 1 lane wide, sometimes only passable by motorbike. unpaved, dirt tracks. Max speed 0-20 km/hr.

Regional Road Assessments

Mon State-Tanintharyi Region

RouteDistanceTravel TimeComments
Yangon – Bago – Thaton – Mawlamyine (AH1)300 km4.5 - 5 hrs
  • This route is suitable as a supply route: It’s a primary road, partly highway. Average speed driven: 67 km/hr.
  • At the edge of Yangon, 8km from the centre, there is a passenger bus terminal “highway gate Aungmingalar”. From here a 4-lane highway goes to Bago. 50-80 km/hr maximum speed.
  • Bridges are 2-lanes, but good quality and do not constrict traffic flow.
  • Road maintenance status is good, some patches repaired, no potholes.
Mawlamyine – Mudon – Ye - Dawei (AH112)316 km7.5 - 8 hrs
  • The route is suitable as a supply route. Most of it is secondary road, with parts primary road. Average speed driven: 42 km/hr.
  • 90% is unlikely to be affected by the monsoon season, only the part near the border of Thanintharyi is a hilly mountain road with places that may be susceptible to landslides.
  • The road in Mon state is the best quality, for 50-80 km/hr speed. From Thanintharyi border about 50km is gravel & dirt road with road works, maximum 20-30km/hr speed.
  • Along most of the road there are works to widen it from one to two lanes which was completed in 2018.
  • There are 19 narrow 1-lane steel & wood bridges where vehicles must wait for each other to pass. It is not a big issue since there is not much traffic on this route.
Dawei – Thayetchaung – Palaw – Myeik (AH112)261 km8 hrs
  • The route is suitable as a supply route. It is mostly a secondary road with 40% a winding dirt/gravel road, a single lane width tarmac road. Average speed driven: 33 km/hr.
  • All along the route there are road works to widen the road, some on-going and planned.
  • There are in total 46 single lane bridges, maximum 1 vehicle wide. Five tollgates.
  • About 93km is winding rough dirt/gravel road, versus 168km patched, bumpy tarmac road, some potholes.
Myeik – Tanintharyi – Bokpyin – Kayathuyi – Kawthaung (AH112)441 km11 hrs
  • The route is suitable as a supply route. It is a secondary road of 37% tarmac and 63% gravel road, mostly well maintained. Average speed driven: 40km/hr. The road on this section is better as the section from Dawei to Myeik.
  • There are in total 59 single lane bridges, maximum 1 vehicle wide and no tollgates.


Mandalay - Sagaing Region 

AH-1

The Yangon-Mandalay expressway or Bagan highway is the only expressway in Myanmar featuring a double carriageway (concrete, some parts tarmac) and four lanes in good condition on its entire length of 587km. This express way runs from Yangon via Naypyitaw, Meikhtila to Mandalay. Trucks are not allowed to use this expressway and must use the old Yangon-Mandalay highway instead (also designated AH1), which runs parallel to the Bagan highway.

Distance Matrix

Travel Time from Capital City to Major Towns (Hours / Days)


Mandalay

Shwebo

Monywa

Kalewa

Kale

Tamu

Mandalay

 

106 km/ 2 hrs

124 km / 2hrs

 317 km / 8 hrs

 356 km / 9 hrs

 481 km / 12 hrs

Shwebo

 106 km / 2 hrs

 

 102 km / 2 hrs

 279 km / 9 hrs

 318 km / 10 hrs

 443 km / 12 hrs

Monywa

124 km / 2 hrs

102 km / 2 hrs

 

 232 km / 7 hrs

 271 km / 8 hrs

 396 km / 10 hrs

Kalewa

 317 km / 8 hrs

 279 km / 9 hrs

232 km / 7 hrs

 

 39km / 1 hr

150 km / 3 hrs

Kale

 356 km / 9 hrs

 318 km / 10 hrs

271 km / 8 hrs

 39 km / 1 hr

 

 125 km / 2 hrs

Tamu

 481km / 12 hrs

443 km / 12 hrs

 396 km / 10 hrs

150 km / 3 hrs

125 km / 2 hrs

 


Travel Time Matrix

Travel Time from Capital City to Major Towns (Hours / Days)


Mandalay

Magway

Pakokku

Nyaung-U

Myingyan

Meiktila

Mandalay

 

350 km / 9 hrs

161 km / 3 hrs

 190 km / 3 hrs

 105 km / 2 hrs

 148 km / 3 hrs

Magway

 350 km / 9 hrs

 

169 km / 3 hrs

144 km / 3 hrs

144 km / 23 hrs

166 km/ 4 hrs

Pakokku

161 km/ 3 hrs

169 km / 3 hrs

 

30km / 1 hr

56 km / 1 hr

 142 km/ 3 hrs

Nyaung-U

190 km / 3 hrs 

144 km / 3 hrs

30km / 1 hr

 

48 km / 1 hr

148 km/ 3 hrs

Myingyan

105 km / 2 hrs

206 km / 5 hrs

56 km / 1 hr

48 km / 1 hr

 

 93 km/ 1 hr

Meiktila

 148 km / 3 hrs

166 km / 4 hrs

 142 km / 3 hrs

148 km / 3 hrs

93 km / 12 hrs

 

Road Assessment Overview

Route

Comments
Route 7, Mandalay to ShweboPrimary road, double lane smooth tarmac, one single lane bridge, suitable for heavy trucks. Includes large double lane, steel Ayeryarwaddy bridge at Sagaing.
Shwebo to Kyauk MyaungSecondary, single lane rough tarmac, suitable for light trucks. Includes large double lane, steel Yadanatheinga bridge over Ayeyarwaddy river at Kyauk Myaung.
Mandalay-Myitkyinar Highway from Lat Pan Hla junctionHighway, double lane smooth & rough tarmac, suitable for heavy trucks, with busy traffic.
Route 71 Sagaing to MonywaPrimary road, double lane smooth tarmac, suitable for heavy trucks.
Monywa to Kalewa via TongyiSecondary road about 60% tarmac, the rest is single-lane dirt road over mountainous area (600m climbing), with landslide area’s & large mud-pools during wet season. Unpassable for some periods between June-Mid Nov, depending on the rains. It was designated as AH-1, but this was changed in 2015 to the road North section via Ye-U to Kalewa. The bridge over the Chindwin river to Kalewa had been completed since 2017.
Monywa to Kalewa via Ye-USecondary road part tarmac, part single-lane dirt road with large mud-pools during wet season. Unpassable for some periods between June-Mid Nov, depending on the rains. Since 2015 it is designated as AH-1 and improvement works have taken place in several parts of this route. The new bridge over the Chindwin river to Kalewa was completed in 2017. However, the road section is still under construction and to be completed by 2021.
Kale to Tamu (AH1)

Secondary road, double lane tarmac. Constraints are mainly on the 49 single-lane bridges: 29 bridges of 24MT weight limit and approximately 20 sign-posted with a 13MT weight limit. However, 12-wheeler trucks of 27MT gross weight (16MT cargo+11MT truck) cross these bridges regularly. It is designated as AH1 because Tamu is the border crossing to India. However due to the high number of single lane bridges it falls short to qualify as a primary road. The only alternative route to Tamu is via boat service along the Chindwin river from Kale to Ton He (8hrs, 16MT max per boat) and from Ton He by dirt & tarmac road to Tamu (4hrs / 88km).

There is a security concern in the area North of Tamu due to armed groups movement which may affect access and security in the area.

Kale to PakokkuVia Gangaw, Pale, Myaing rd.,Yesagyo road, secondary road, single lane rough tarmac: need to yield to trucks. Crossing two mountains (Pon & Pon Nyar) of 900m altitude with steep roads and switchbacks. One river crossing with a damaged concrete and one bridge with railroad are two potential bottlenecks. Suitable for heavy trucks.
Pakokku to Baganvia Pakokku-Ayeryawaddy bridge. Secondary road, double lane smooth tarmac. Suitable for heavy trucks. No constraints.
Nyaung-U to Semeikhon portvia Myingyan, until Nabuauing: Secondary road, double lane smooth tarmac. Suitable for heavy trucks. No constraints. From Nabuaing village to Semeikhon port (18.4km/1 hr): narrow dirt road, possibility of mud-pools, suitable for light trucks/jeeps only.
Myingyan to Pyinmana (Naypyitaw)Until Meiktila: Secondary road, double lane rough tarmac, winding road with some hills. Suitable for heavy trucks. No constraints. From Meiktila to Pyinmana: (Yangon-Mandalay old road) Primary road for heavy trucks, double lane smooth tarmac. Busy with cargo traffic. No constraints.


Naypyitaw, East-Bago and South-Mandalay region

Travel times noted below are for 4x4 Jeep / city car. For heavy trucks travel time should be considerably increased by +/- 40-50%. The table below shows the travel distance and time via the old Yangon-Mandalay highway, AH1, the primary road for truck traffic .

Distance Matrix

Travel Distance and time from Capital City to Major Towns (km, hr)


Region

Capital (Km)

Capital (hr)

Bago

East-Bago

75 km

1hr 25min

Taungoo

East-Bago

275

5 hrs

Pyinmana

Naypyitaw

375

7 hr 7min

Meikhtila

South-Mandalay

543

9hr 52min

Distance Matrix for Yangon-Naypyitaw

Travel Time from Capital City to Major Towns (Hours / Days)


Yangon

Bago

Taungoo

Pyinmana

Naypyitaw

Meikhtila

Yangon

 

75 km / 1 hr

275 km/ 5 hrs

375 km / 7 hrs

388 km / 7 hrs

543 km / 10 hrs

Bago

75 km / 1 hr

 

200 km / 4 hrs

300 km / 6 hrs

313 km/ 6 hrs

468 km / 9 hrs

Taungoo

275 km / 5 hrs

200 km/ 4 hrs

 

100 km / 2 hrs

113 km / 3 hrs

268 km / 5 hrs

Pyinmana

375 km / 7 hrs

300km/ 6 hrs

100 km / 2 hrs

 

13 km / 15 min

168 km / 3 hrs

Naypyitaw

388 km / 7 hrs

313 km / 6 hrs

113 km / 3 hrs

13km / 15 min

 

155km / 3 hrs

Meikhtila

543 km / 10 hrs

468km / 9 hrs 

268 km / 5 hrs

168 km / 3 hrs

155 km / 3 hrs

 

Magway, West-Bago and South Mandalay region

Distance Matrix

Travel Distance and time from Meikhtila to Major Towns (km, hr)


Region

Distance (Km)

Travel Time (hr)

Kyaukpadaung

South-Mandalay

107

2 hrs

Magway

Magway

217

4 hrs

Taungdwingyi

Magway

299

5 hrs

Aunglan

Magway

390

7 hrs

Pyay

West-Bago

460

8 hrs

Yangon

Yangon

745

14 hrs

Distance and Travel Time Matrix for Meikthila-Pyay

 

Meikhtila

Kyauk Padaung

Magway

Taung dwingyi

Aunglan

Pyay

Yangon

Meikhtila

 

107 km / 12 hrs

217 km / 4 hrs

299 km / 5 hrs

390 km / 7 hrs

460 km / 8 hrs

745 km / 14 hrs

Kyauk Padaung

107 km / 2 hrs

 

110 km/ 2 hrs

192 km / 4 hrs

283 km / 5 hrs

353 km / 7 hrs

638 km / 12 hrs

Magway

217 km / 4 hrs

110 km / 2 hrs

 

82 km /2 hrs

173 km / 3 hrs

243 km / 5 hrs

528 km / 10 hrs

Taung Dwingyi

299 km / 5 hrs

192 km / 4 hrs

82 km /2 hrs

 

91 km / 2 hrs

161 km / 3 hrs

446 km / 9 hrs

Aunglan

390 km / 7 hrs

283 km / 5 hrs

173 km / 3 hrs

91 km / 2 hrs

 

70 km / 1 hr

355 km / 7 hrs

Pyay

460 km / 8 hrs

353 km / 7 hrs

243 km / 5 hrs

161 km / 3 hrs

70 km / 1 hr

 

28 5 km / 6 hrs

Yangon

745 km / 14 hrs

638 km / 12 hrs

528 km / 10 hrs

446 km / 9 hrs

355 km / 7 hrs

28 5 km / 6 hrs

 

Road Assessment Overview

RouteComments
AH1 Yangon-NaypyitawYangon via Bago, Taungoo to Naypyitaw via old Yangon-Mandalay highway. Double lane smooth tarmac. Yangon to Bago 4-lane tarmac. Primary road for heavy trucks. Some delays while passing through villages and several railroad crossings were observed along this route.
Meikthila-KyaukpadaungDouble lane tarmac, unnamed secondary road suitable for heavy trucks. Crossing hill country. No constraints. Distance: 107km, Time: 1hr38min, 65 km/hr average, 110 km/hr max speed.
Kyaukpadaung-MagwayVia Yenangyaung town. Double lane tarmac, via unnamed secondary road and primary Road-2, suitable for heavy trucks. Crossing hill country. No constraints. Distance: 110km, Time: 2hrs, 53 km/hr average, 87 km/hr max speed.
Magway-TaungdwingyiDouble lane tarmac, via primary Road-2, suitable for heavy trucks. Crossing hill country. Three bridges, one single lane. Distance: 82km, Time: 1hr30min, 52 km/hr average, 86 km/hr max speed.
Taungdwingyi-AungsanVia Koebin town. Double lane, old bumpy, tarmac, via primary Road-2 suitable for heavy trucks. Crossing hill country. Constraints: three single lane bridges. Distance: 91km, Time: 1hr55min, 47 km/hr average, 78 km/hr max speed.
Aunglan-PyayVia Pyalo and Duyingabo town. Double lane, bumpy tarmac, via primary Road-2, suitable for heavy trucks. Winding road sometimes along the Ayeryawaddy river. Two bridges, no constraints. Distance: 70km, Time: 1hr25min, 47 km/hr average, 85 km/hr max speed.
Pyay-YangonPrimary Road-2 Yangon-Pyay road. Double lane tarmac, large parts with extra concrete shoulder added. Suitable for heavy trucks. Passing through several small towns (Paungde, Nattalin, Zigon, Gyobingauk, Okpho, Minhia, Letpadan, Tharrawaddy, Okekan, Taik Kyi, Hmawbi) which slows average speed. Distance: 285km, Time: 5hr35min, 51 km/hr average, 92 km/hr max speed.

Yangon to Loikaw, Demoso, Hpruso and Shadaw in Kayah State

Travel times noted below are for 4x4 land cruiser / city car and the travel time and the routes are also noted from Yangon to Taungoo, which used via Yangon-Mandalay Express Road and via newly renovated road from Taungoo to Loikaw. The road from Taungoo to Loikaw is not widely utilized because of its security concern of the landmine on the past and it need to go through Kayin and Shan States. The tourist buses also prefer to use the road via Kalaw of Shan State. For heavy trucks travel time should be considerably increased by +/- 40-50% and it should also take account the alternative route from Yangon to Taungoo.

Travel Distance and time from Yangon to Major Towns (km, hr)


Region

Distance (Km)

Travel times (hr)

Taungoo

Bago Region

277

4 hrs

Demoso

Northern Kayah

472

8 hrs

Hpruso

Northern Kayah

488

8 hrs

Loikaw

Northern Kayah

490

9 hrs

Distance Matrix

Loikaw- Major town in Northern Kayah State: Distance (KM) and Travel Time (Hours) Matrix

Travel Time from Capital City to Major Towns (Hours / Days)

 

Loikaw

Demoso

Hpruso

Shadaw

Loikaw

 

18km/ 30m

32km/ 50m

80 km / 3 hrs

Demoso

18 km/ 30 m

 

16km/ 20m

98 km / 3 hrs

Hpruso

32 km/ 50 m

16km/ 20m

 

112 km / 4 hrs

Shadaw

80 km/ 3 hrs

98 km / 3 hrs

112 km / 4 hrs

 

Road Assessment Overview

RouteComments
AH1 Yangon-TaungooFor any heavy truck need to use Yangon- Bago- Taungoo via old Yangon-Mandalay highway. This primary road is with 4-lane tarmac and it can cause some delays while passing through villages and several times crossing the railroad.
Taungoo-Loikaw via Thangdaung-LeikTho-DemosoDouble lane tarmac, unnamed secondary road suitable for 6 wheeler x 17ft long trucks due to the road are narrower at some sharp windings and steep condition while crossing hill country. This is the old road which was closed for some decades due to the security inside Kayin(Karen) State and Southern Shan State, especially landmine issue between Thandaung- Leiktho-Demoso. Now, more and more trucks, even 10-wheeler trucks are seen in this route. There is no weighbridge for this road yet except checkpoint run by local militia. The road condition from Demoso to Loikaw(18Km) is wider and in much better condition. The road is under expansion from 3(m) width to 5(m) from the union budget in financial year of 2017-2018.  Distance: 213km, Time: 5hr, 40 km/hr average, 50 km/hr max speed. There are two alternative corridor to get Loikaw, such as Yangon-Pyawbwe-Loikaw and Yangon-Naypyitaw-Pinlaung-Pekon-Loikaw.
Loikaw-DemosoTwo lane tarmac, via Union Road which serves as a primary road inside Kayah State and it is no constraint for heavy trucks. Distance: 18Km, Time: 25min, 38 km/hr average, 80 km/hr max speed.
Loikaw-Hpruso via DemosoTwo lane tarmac, via primary Road-2 and suitable for heavy trucks. No constraint. Distance: 32km, Time: 50min, 40 km/hr in average, 80 km/hr max speed.from Hpruso, this corridor connects to Mese (close Thai border).
Loikaw- ShadawIt is a tarmac and can be classified as secondary road and only suitable for light trucks (12 tonnage) as the mountain range is unreasonably steep with sharp curves at some sections. Only few villages are situated along the road and vehicles need to cross a concrete bridge over the Pawn Chaung River. Constraints: the route is too steep with some U-turns and heavy trucks are rarely seen on this route. This route corridor used to be known for landmines. Many transporters regard this route as  high risk for trucking business. No facilities for vehicle maintenance nor proper fuel station in the area. However, there are daily bus lines for this corridor. Distance: 80km, Time: 2hr45min, 29 km/hr average, 60km/hr max speed.
Shadaw- San Laung-Tadamaw-Thanlwin River

It is tarmac road for 8 km and the rest 8 km is graveled road and unpaved and dirt road with many small weak wooden bridges. It was observed that a small scale of road and bridges construction is on-going. The lorry trucks carrying trunks are seen to operate on this route. The ferry over the Salween River is made of five-boat combined with three speedboat engine fixed and it mainly serve the trucks carrying lumbers. The ferry fee is MMK60,000 to 120,000 per trip base on the load and volume. For the passengers, there is a boat ferry which charges MMK3000 per person. There are two checkpoints from Karenni National Progress Party-KNPP and one from Myanmar Army. According to some local people, there is a plan to construct a bridge over the Than Lwin river 16 Km from Shadaw to go up to the Myanmar-Thai Border Point (BP13). There is no proper road on the other side of Salween, however in the dry season, there are some local L/C 4x4 vehicles manage to go up to BP13 with local passengers.

Constraints: While bridges still under construction, it will not be easy to cross some criverbeds during the rainy season Distance: 36km, Time: 40 min, 30km/hr average, 45 km/hr max speed.


Yangon to Mawlamyine Gyun, Bogalay and Phyapon, Kyaiklatt in Ayawaddy Division

Travel times noted below are for 4x4 land cruiser / city car and the travel time

Travel Distance and time from Yangon to Major Towns (km, hr)


Region

Distance (Km)

Travel Times (hr)

Mawlamyine Gyun

Ayawaddy Division

165

4 hrs

Bogalay

Ayawaddy Division

27

40 mins

Pyapon

Ayawaddy Division

37

1hr

Kyaiklat

Ayawaddy Division

21

 30 mins

Yangon

Yangon

122

3 hrs

Road Assessment Overview

RouteComments

Yangon-Mawlamyine Gyun

Mawlamyine Gyun is a township of Labutta District under Ayawaddy Division in Myanmar. Main business is rice and other agricultural products as well as frozen seafood from the fisheries on their way to Pathain and Yangon. The Main road is 165 km  in length and road condition is good and mostly on tarmac and some parts are concrete roads. Due to the bridge capacity, only trucks with maximum load of  13 MTs are allowed to use of Yangon to Mawlamyine Gyun main road. It is observed that passenger traffic from Malamyine Gyun mainly travels with public bus lines, but cargo transportation mainly relies on waterway to save costs since they can carry larger volume. There are no constraints or disruptions as services run throughout the year. There is Highway gate outside of the town.
Mawgyun-BogalayBefore 2008, it was only accessible by waterway from Mawgyun to Bogalay. Razudaing-2 bridge was constructed in 2009 to enhance better logistics infrastructure and to connect each township. This is the only one main road network from Mawgyun to Bogalay which is single lane tarmac road and 27 km long and it takes around 40 minutes by 4x4 land cruiser.
Bogalay-PyaponThis is the only main road from Bogalay to Pyapon which is 37 km long with single lane tarmac road and it takes about 1 hour drive using a land cruiser.
Pyapon-KayiklatThis road is 21 km long with single lane tarmac road and it takes about 30 minutes by 4 x 4 land cruiser.
Kyaiklat-YangonThis road is 122 km from Kyaiklat to Yangon and It is observed that Ministry of transport is upgrading some sections of the road. Most of this section is tarmac road with some concrete sections. There is no constraint and it is accessible throughout the year.


Mandalay and Northern Sagaing Region

Travel times noted below are for 4x4 Land Cruiser / City car. For heavy trucks travel time should be considerably increased (add +/- 40-50%).

AH-1: The Yangon-Mandalay expressway or Bagan highway: This is the only expressway in Myanmar featuring a double carriageway (concrete, some parts tarmac) and four lanes in good condition on its entire length of 587km. This express way runs from Yangon via Nay Pyi Taw, Meikhtila to Mandalay. Trucks are restricted on  this expressway and must proceed on to  the old Yangon-Mandalay highway instead (also designated AH1), which runs parallel to the Yangon-Pyay-Meikhtila-Mandalay highway. This section  is frequently use and road is wider despite its longer distance than the other. Travel time is quite similar (650 Km ,10 hr30min vs 609Km, 10hr30min).

 

Travel Distance and time from Yangon to Major Towns (km, hr)


Region

Distance (Km)

Travel Time (hr)

Nay Pyi Taw

Naypyidaw

363

4 hr 30 mins

Mandalay,

Mandalay

622

7 hr 30 mins

Katha

Sagaing

995

16 hrs


Distance Matrix

Travel Distance and time from Katha to Major Towns 


Region

Distance (Km)

Travel Time(hr)

Indaw

Northern Sagaing

26

40 mins

Banmauk

Northern Sagaing

69

2 hrs 30 mins

Pinlebu

Northern Sagaing

160

5 hrs 30 mins

Wuntho

Northern Sagaing

136

4 hrs

Kawlin

Northern Sagaing

119

4 hrs

Tigyaing

Northern Sagaing

66

3 hrs

Kanbalu

Northern Sagaing

193

4 hrs 30 mins

Ye-U

Northern Sagaing

277

7hr

 

Katha-Southern Sagaing: Distance (KM) and Travel Time (Hours) Matrix 

 Travel Time from Capital City to Major Towns (Hours / Days)

 

Katha

Indaw

Banmauk

Pinlebu

Wuntho

Kawlin

Tigyaing

*via Singgu brg

Kanbalu

Ye-U

Katha

 

26 km/ 1 hr

69 km /3 hrs

160 km / 6 hrs

136 km/ 4 hrs

119 km/ 4 hrs

66 km / 3 hrs

193 km / 5 hrs

277 km / 7hrs

Indaw

26 km/ 1 hr

 

43 km / 2 hrs

134 km / 5 hrs

96 km / 3 hrs

93 km / 3 hrs

89 km / 3 hrs

167 km / 4 hrs

251 km / 6 hrs

Banmauk

69 km /3 hrs

43 km / 2 hrs

 

91 km / 3 hrs

163 km /  7 hrs

163 km / 7 hrs

106 km / 5 hrs

210 km / 5 hrs

280 km / 10 hrs

Pinlebu

160 km / 6 hrs

134 km / 5 hrs

91 km / 3 hrs

 

63 km /3 hrs

63 km / 3 hrs

223 km / 8 hrs

133 km / 4 hrs

217 km/ 7 hrs

Wuntho

136 km/ 4 hrs

96 km / 3 hrs

163 km /  7 hrs

63 km /3 hrs

 

16 km/ 20 mins

199 km / 7 hrs

86 km/ 2 hrs

170 km / 5 hrs

Kawlin

119 km/ 4 hrs

93 km / 3 hrs

163 km / 7 hrs

63 km / 3 hrs

16 km/ 20 mins

 

182 km / 6 hrs

70 km / 1 hr

154 km / 4 hrs

Tigyaing

*via Singgu brg

66 km / 3 hrs

89 km / 3 hrs

106 km / 5 hrs

223 km / 8 hrs

199 km / 7 hrs

182 km / 6 hrs

 

303 km / 7 hrs

246 km / 6 hrs

Kanbalu

193 km / 5 hrs

167 km / 4 hrs

210 km / 5 hrs

133 km / 4 hrs

86 km/ 2 hrs

70 km / 1 hr

303 km / 7 hrs


84 km / 3 hrs

Ye-U

277 km / 7hrs

251 km / 6 hrs

280 km / 10 hrs

217 km/ 7 hrs

170 km / 5 hrs

154 km / 4 hrs

246 km / 6 hrs

84 km / 3 hrs

 


Road Assessment Overview

RouteComments
Mandalay-Kawlin

The AH-1 will be ended at Shwebo junction, 111 Km from Mandalay with two lane tarmac as a primary road. From Shwebo to Kawlin, it uses Shwebo-Myitkyina road up to Taungmaw Junction, 203 Km from Shwebo and 22 Km from Kawlin as a secondary road, one lane tarmac road. From the Taungmaw junction of Shwebo-Myitkyi (Strategic) Road, which can also be classified as a secondary road up to Kawlin with 1-lane tarmac.

This section was flooded in 2015 and 2016, 15-38 Km area within Kawlin was flooded and the water level flooded the road by 50 to 130 cm in height making Kawlin inaccessible for a week during the flood. Distance: 296km, Time: 7hr, 40 km/hr average, 50 km/hr max speed.

Kawlin to WunthoIt can be classified as secondary road, mostly a single-lane and flash flood may make this route impassable during the rainy season.  It is only 16 Km from Kawlin or around 20 minutes’ drive from Kawlin.
Wuntho-PinlebuIt can be classified as secondary, single lane, 70% smooth tarmac and 30% is graveled-dirt road as a tertiary road. However, it is suitable for 6-wheeler trucks with winding section in many places and the roads are not so steep. There are regular mini-bus services between Pinlebu and Mandalay on daily basis. There are very few trucks seen on this road. Distance: 63km, Time: 2hr50min, 23 km/hr average, 30 km/hr max speed. At the time of assessment, a bridge was recently constructed between Wuntho/Kawlin-Pinlebu, however, the road conditions remain the same.
Pinlebu-PaungpyinIt can be classified as secondary road for 15% with single lane-tarmac for 15 Km and proper bridges from Pinlebu and the rest 85% can be classified as tertiary road, graveled-dirt road, steep hill and many winding sections. It is not accessible in rainy season. However, in the dry season (Nov-May), there are 6-wheeler light trucks and other minibus observed on this route between Pinlebu and Mandalay on daily basis. There are very few timber trucks seen on this road. This road was developed in 1978 and road conditions have not improved much since then. Distance: 104km, Time: 4hr, 26km/hr average, 30 km/hr max speed. The road had been renovated from Graveled to Tarmac) between Ponpyin & Pinlebu, 16 Km from Pinlebu.
Pinlebu-BanmaukIt can be classified as secondary road for 20% wide and graveled road and the rest 80% has no proper bridges, graveled-bumpy, dirty with several small rivers to cross which can be classified as tertiary road. It is not accessible in rainy season. However, in the dry season (Nov-May), there are 6-wheeler timber trucks (16-tonnage). No regular bus service is found, but the light-truck and double cab pickups are visible on the road intermittently. It is not suitable for heavy truck of 10/12 wheeler. Distance: 104km, Time: 3hr, 30km/hr average, 35 km/hr max speed.
Banmauk- IndawIt can be classified as secondary road with proper bridges and tarmac with one lane 70% and remaining 30% is improving. It is generally accessible throughout the year. The regular bus line connects Banmauk via Indaw to Mandalay. Distance: 43km, Time: 1hr50min (max), 34km/hr average, 60 km/hr max speed.
Indaw-KathaIt is 100% double lane tar road and can be classified as primary road. It leads to Myitkyina-Shwebo road for about 8 Km near Nabar-Junction and proceed to Katha for 18 Km. This road section is short, but it is qualifiedly in the best condition in the northern part of Sagaing. Distance: 26km, Time: 40min, 40km/hr average, 60 km/hr max speed.
Katha- to Singan (Kachin State)This road section is heading to a  new bridge constructed over Ayeyarwadi  in name of Singan_Ayeyarwadi bridge. About 30% of this road section are dirty and bumpy-stone road, many heavy truck (10/12-wheelers) take  this road on their way to China via Banmaw and Mai Ja Yang (Non-government Control Area). Plenty of large mud-pools may form during wet season and thick dusts are observed during the dry season. It is a strategic route for future use since the road area is very wide (200 ft) provided that the condition is upgraded. Very few villages are seen along the road. Distance: 104km, Time:4hr10min, 25km/hr average, 30km/hr max speed.
Katha- Gyanthaw Chaung (Via Ferry)There is a ferry between Katha to Gyanthaw Chaung crossing over the Ayeyarwaddy River to connect with Mandalay-Shwegu-Banmaw road on the over side of the bank. The ferryfwith full-load truck will cost MMK60,000 for 12-wheelers, MMK55,000 for 10-wheelers and MMK35,000 for 6-wheelers while it charges the empty truck for MMK35,000, MMK30,000 and MMK25,000 respectively. In case of the ferry is not fully loaded, the operator will charge MMK 80,000 per trip for any kind of vehicle and it is a regulated price made by the Township Municipal Office. It takes 15 minutes to cross the river.
Katha-Tigyaing

This road section is still under development. 20% of bridges are not yet ready and this route crosses several riverbeds which makes itimpassable during the rainy season as high water level blocks access. It can be classified as 60% of secondary road, one-lane tarmac and the rest 40% of it can be classified as tertiary road because of bumpy-stone tracks with no roads with some narrow points. Many heavy trucks (10/12-wheelers) rather rely on this road after the completion of the bridge over the Ayeyarwaddy at Tigyaing. A bridge wasconstructed in 2017-18. Distance: 66km, Time: 4hr10min, 16km/hr average, 25km/hr max speed.

Note: There are 5 bus line services (Shwe Khit, Thakhinlay, Ngwe Zin Yaw, Tine Min Aung and Aung Myittar) base in Katha and operate from Katha to Mandalay,Moe Ngin, Moe Kaung and Myitkyina.

Tigyaing-Shwebo-KanbaluSince the road from Tigyaing to Kyauk-Kone the junction of Shwebo-Myintgyi and Tigyaing is still in bad conditions, many drivers opt for an alternative road from Tigyaing to Mandalay-Bamaw road until Singgu and from double-lane Siggu-Ayeyarwaddy Bridge to Shwebo and Kanbalu. This Tigyang-Shwebo- Kanbalu section can be classified as 50% primary and 50% secondary road. It is suitable for any kind of heavy truck. In the section of secondary road, from Ayeyarwaddy bridge of Singgu, there is one lane tarmac up to Kanbalu. This route is not badly affected by seasonal changes. Distance: 303km, Time: 7hr, 43km/hr average, 50km/hr max speed.
Kanbalu-Kyun HlaIt can be classified as secondary road as it has single lane-tarmac. Around the road approaching Kyun Hla, it got flooded as high as 2 meter in 2015 flood. Otherwise, it is suitable for 6/10/12-wheeler truck. Distance: 18Km, Time: 25min. 43Km/hr average, 50km/hr max speed.
Kanbalu-Ye-UIt can be classified as secondary road due to its single lane tarmac. Eastern part of Ye-U can be flooded up to 1 meter deep. However, the road was accessible during the worst flood that took place in 2015. The Ye-U bridge over the Mu River is a single lane bridge. It is suitable for 6/10/12-wheeler truck. Distance: 84Km, Time: 2hr50min, 30Km/hr average, 35km/hr max speed.
Ye U- Shwebo-MandalayBy crossing over Ye-U Bridge, single lane overlapped with rail track over the Mu river, the road passes by Shwebo to get to Mandalay by taking Shwebo-Mattayar-Mandalay road via the Singgu, Ayeyarwadi bridge. This road can be classified as 80% primary road and only 20% is secondary road. It is suitable for any kind of heavy truck. Two lane tarmac road over the Ayeyarwaddy(Siggu) bridge, there is a single lane tarmac up to Kanbalu. During the rainy season, if the water level of Mu River rises, it will overflow to the riverbank but it does not cause disturbance to road traffic. Distance: 168km, Time: 4 hrs, 42km/hr average, 50km/hr max speed.


Mandalay to Homlin and Homlin to Naga, Sagaing Region

Travel times noted below are for 4x4 Land Cruiser / Jeep car. For heavy trucks travel time should be considerably increased (add +/- 40-50%).

 AH-1: The Yangon-Mandalay expressway or Bagan highway: This is the only expressway in Myanmar featuring a double carriageway (concrete, some parts tarmac) and four lanes in good condition on its entire length of 587km. This express way runs from Yangon via Nay Pyi Taw, Meikthtila to Mandalay. Trucks are not allowed to use this expressway and must use the old Yangon-Mandalay highway instead (also designated AH1), which runs parallel to the Yangon-Pyay-Meikhtila-Mandalay highway which are more frequently used with wider road , however, despite its longer distance than the other alternative route, the travel time is the same(650 Km ,10 hr30min vs 609Km, 10hr30min).

Travel Distance and time from Yangon to Major Towns (km, hr)


Region

Capital (Km)

Capital (hr)

Nay Pyi Taw

Naypyitaw

363

4 hrs 30 min

Mandalay,

Mandalay

622

7 hrs 30 min

Mongywa

Sagaing

726

10 hrs

Homalin

Sagaing

1,193

21 hrs

Distance Matrix

Distances within the Naga Self-Administration Zone (SAZ), Sagaing Region

Travel Distance and time from Homalin to Major Towns (km, hr)


Region

Distance (Km)

Travel Time (hr)

*Pint Mar (Opposite bank of Hta Man Thi)

Northern Sagaing

87

1hr 30 mins

**Lay Shi

Naga SAZ, Sagaing Region

152

8 hrs

Hkamti

Northern Sagaing

69

5 hrs

Lahe

Naga SAZ, Sagaing Region

150

6 hrs

Nan Yun

Naga SAZ, Sagaing Region

305

11 hrs 

Pan Saung

Naga SAZ, Sagaing Region

357

4 hrs

*Pint Mar is a transit point to reach Hta Man Thi, where the ferry service is available to cross over Chindwin river and reach Hta Man Thi

** From Homalin to Lay Shi, need to use ferry between Pint Mar and Hta Man Thi and then proceed to Lay Shi

Please note that travel times mentioned above are for 4x4 land cruiser / city car and cargo trucks travel time should be considerably increased (add 70 - 100%)


Road Assessment Overview

RouteComments
Monywa - Homalin (467 km)

For this road section, there are two options of route can be used; 1st route either Monywa-Ye U-Thickegyin- Paungbyin-Homalin(535Km) or 2nd route Moywa-Kawlin-Pinlebu-Paungbyin-Homlin(527Km). The trucks are mostly operated on 1st route while the 2nd route is preferred for minibus with 10 passengers and light vehicles because some parts of the route between Thickegyin and Paungbyin is bumpy and graveled with potholes.  From the 1st route, it is later regarded as AH1 section for 210 Km with tarmac and many improved bridges, between the road section of Monywa and Kale. Only 6-wheelers type (Canter & Nissan) are recommended on the route of Thickkeygyin- Paungbyin-Homalin and  Pinlebu-Homalin road section and this section can be also regarded as tertiary road with dirt, graveled road and narrow at some places. The road improvement continues year by year however, both these routes remain inaccessible at times during the rainy season (June-Oct).

There are 11-minibus stands operates between Homlin to Mandalay and Monywa. But, most of them are mainly based in Monywa and 4 in Homlin.

Homalin - Hta Man Thi (87 km)Involves a ferry ride at Pint Mar bank to cross over the Chindwin River and it will take 5-10 min for cross the river. The ferry barge can load light truck and vehicles, too. It could cost from MMK 30,000 to 50,000 per trip for the ferry charges. It can be classified as tertiary road because of the graveled and narrow, no service for vehicles, rare trucks and sparseness of villages along the road. No access for truck during the rainy season and no regular traffic system in place yet.
Hta Man Thi - Layshi (65 km)This section is dirt, steep and winding and can be classified as tertiary. No sourced information regarding the truck operating in the area. It is potentially not accessible in rainy season.
Homlin - Hkamti (69 km)his section is graveled, partly dirty, narrow and no steep. 6-Wheeler light truck can be also accessible during the dry season (Nov-May), however, due to road conditions, this is not a popular route for most transporters since the waterway is more used. It can be classified as tertiary road. Hkamti is the only place has a domestic airport in the area and in dry season. It is quite common that boats are caught in the mud due to shallow water and could stay entrapped for weeks.
Khamti - Lahei Road (81 km)This is the only and main road network to Lahei from Khamti. The road is one-lane narrow tarmac and the mountain range is unreasonably steep and the curve is sharp in general at some sections. There are no regular passenger service running between Khamti and Lahei as the buses or minibuses only runs when they are full. There is also motorbike taxi transportation service from Khamti to Lahei. Most transporters are based in Lahei with 5 MT trucks and Indian 1.5 tonnage trucks. They operate all year-round between Khamti and Lahe. Government is upgrading and renovating the road gradually and in the past 1-2 years, the road conditions have significantly improved. The team observed that there are possibilities of landslide for some sections between Khamti~Lahei road.
Lahei - Nan Yun Road (168 km)This section of road is wide enough for small carc up to Tonhi, but the road start narrows from Tonhi to Nan Yun. The road is steep with curves on. It is only accessible by cargo truck (5tonnage 6-wheeler) during the dry season and not accessible during the rainy season. There is motorbike transportation service between Lahei and Nan Yun.
Nan Yun~Pan Saung Road (52 km)This section of road condition is very bad as only 15% of stone road is wide enough and the remaining 85% of this section have no proper bridges, graveled-bumpy, dirty and muddy classifiable as tertiary road. It is not accessible in rainy season. However, in the dry season (Nov-May), there are 6-wheeler timber trucks (8-tonnage) operating on this route. No regular transport service is found, but 4x4 vehicles and double cabin pickups do pass through here intermittently.


Taunggyi and Northern Shan State

Travel times noted below are for 4x4 Land Cruiser / City car. For heavy trucks travel time should be considerably increased by +/- 40-50%. The route from Yangon to Taunggyi. The road branches into two, and those are Yangon-Naypyidaw-Pinlaung-Aungban-Taunggyi Route(AH1 to AH3 connect in Aungban) and Yangon-Naypyitaw-Pyawbwe-Kalaw-Aungban-Taunggyi(AH1 connect AH3 at Pyawbwe-Tharzi Junction). Among two,Yangon-Naypyitaw-Pyawbwe-Kalaw-Aungban-Taunggyi is the preferred route since the terrain is more manageable. The road is wider as well, however, despite its longer distance than the other alternative, the travel time is arguably the same (650 Km ,10 hr30min vs 609Km, 10hr30min).

Distance Matrix

Travel Distance and time from Taunggyi to Major Towns (km, hr)


Region

Distance (km)

Travel Time (hr)

Aungban

Southern Shan

37

1 hr

Pekon

Southern Shan

160

4 hrs

Loilem

Southern Shan

96

3 hrs

Namsang

Southern Shan

123

3 hrs

Langkho

Southern Shan

198

5 hrs

Mongpan

Southern Shan

266

6 hrs

Mongton

Southern Shan

359

10 hrs

Ponparkyin

Southern Shan

417

11 hrs

 

Taunggyi-Southern Shan Town: Distance (KM) and Travel Time (Hours) Matrix 

 

Travel Time from Capital City to Major Towns (Hours / Days)

 

Taunggyi

Aungban

Pekon

Loilem

Namsang

Langkho

Mongpan

Mongton

Ponparkyin

Taunggyi

 

37 km / 1 hr

160 km / 4 hrs

96 km / 2 hrs

123 km / 3 hrs

198 km / 5 hrs

266 km / 6 hrs

359 km / 10 hrs

417 km / 11 hrs

Aungban

37 km / 1 hr

 

124 km / 3 hrs

151 km / 4 hrs

179 km/ 5 hrs

254 km / 6 hrs

302 km / 7 hrs

396 km / 11 hrs

449 km / 11 hrs

Pekon

160 km / 4 hrs

124 km / 3 hrs

 

275 km / 7 hrs

302 km / 8 hrs

377 km / 9 hrs

426 km / 10 hrs

519 km / 14 hrs

577 km / 15 hrs

Loilem

96 km / 2 hrs

151 km / 4 hrs

275 km / 7 hrs

 

27 km / 1 hr

102 km / 2 hrs

151 km / 4 hrs

244 km / 7 hrs

302 km / 8 hrs

Namsang

123 km / 3 hrs

179 km/ 5 hrs

302 km / 8 hrs

27 km / 1 hr

 

79 km / 2 hrs

124 km / 3 hrs

217 km / 6 hrs

275 km / 7 hrs

Langkho

198 km / 5 hrs

254 km / 6 hrs

377 km / 9 hrs

102 km / 2 hrs

79 km / 2 hrs

 

50 km / 1 hr

143 km / 5 hrs

200 km / 6 hrs

Mongpan

266 km / 6 hrs

302 km / 7 hrs

426 km / 10 hrs

151 km / 4 hrs

124 km / 3 hrs

50 km / 1 hr

 

93 km / 4 hrs

151 km / 5 hrs

Mongton

359 km / 10 hrs

396 km / 11 hrs

519 km / 14 hrs

244 km / 7 hrs

217 km / 6 hrs

143 km / 5 hrs

93 km / 4 hrs

 

 58 km / 1 hr

Ponparkyin

417 km / 11 hrs

449 km / 11 hrs

577 km / 15 hrs

302 km / 8 hrs

275 km / 7 hrs

200 km / 6 hrs

151 km / 5 hrs

 58 km / 1 hr

 


Road Assessment Overview

RouteComments
AH1 Yangon-Naypyitaw-PyawbweYangon via Bago, Taungoo to Naypyitaw via old Yangon-Mandalay highway. Double lane smooth tarmac. Yangon to Bago 4-lane tarmac. Primary road for heavy trucks. Some delays while passing through villages and at the railroad crossings.
AH3 Pyawbwe-Payarngarzu- KalawIt is double lane smooth tarmac and good primary road suitable for heavy trucks. After Payarngarzu junction road is steep and winding up to Kalaw and in this section, many trucks seem to break down due to engine or clutch issues since this section is a long and steep. No major constraints. Distance: 100km, Time: 2hr33min, 40 km/hr average, 80 km/hr max speed.
AH3 Kalaw-Aungban-TaunggyiVia Aungban, Shwe Nyaung and Ayetharyar towns. Double lane tarmac, this is primary road suitable for heavy trucks. Crossing hill country. No constraints. Distance: 71km, Time: 1hr50m, 40 km/hr average, 60 km/hr max speed.
Taunggyi-PekonVia AH3 up to Aungban and Pinlaung towns. The three-junction point heading to Pekon is situated between Aungban and Kalaw(AH3). Double lane tarmac, via AH3 and secondary road (union road), suitable for heavy trucks. Crossing hill country. No constraint. Distance: 157km, Time: 3hr40min, 43 km/hr average, 70 km/hr max speed.
AH3Taunggyi-Hopong-Loilem-NamsangVia Hopong, Mong Pawn and Loilem town. Double lane, suitable for heavy trucks. Crossing hill country. No special constraints reported. Distance: 123km, Time: 3hr45min, 38 km/hr average, 50km/hr max speed.
Namsang-LangkhoVia Mongnai town, Shan ancient place. Double lane, smooth tarmac, via secondary road, suitable for short-body heavy trucks (maximum 10 wheeler) for some turns. No special constraints, except for the sharp turn along the route. Distance: 79km, Time: 1hr30min, 40 km/hr average, 55 km/hr max speed.
Langkho-MongpanIt can be classified as secondary road with smooth tarmac but narrow at hilly places. Suitable for 6-wheeler trucks, however, the 10-wheeler lumber trucks have been seen along this route. Constraints: Steep and winding sections. Distance: 285km, Time: 5hr35min, 51 km/hr average, 92 km/hr max speed.
Mongpan-MongtonIt can be classified as a secondary road with bumpy tarmac for 20 Km, tertiary road with narrow, sharp turn around uphill and downhill for 20 Km. It is suitable for 6 wheeler trucks, however, there are still 10-wheeler lumber trucks observed struggling along the way. According to Mongpan township administrator, there is a plan to upgrade the road along Mongpan, Mongton and Monghsat.  Constraints: Steep and windings. Distance: 94km, Time: 3hr45min, 51 km/hr average, 92 km/hr max speed.
Mongton-PonparkyinIt can be classified as secondary road with smooth single tarmac via Narkaungmu. It is suitable for heavy trucks(12 wheeler). Although there is no heavy trucks observed during the visit, there are many light vehicles and car workshops. Security risk is present along this route since many heavily armed group operate in the area. Distance: 58km, Time: 1 hr, 58 km/hr average, 65km/hr max speed.
Ponparkyin-BP1It can be classified as secondary road with bumpy and graveled road. It is not allowed to access up to BP1 by the Government troop stationed at the checkpoint, except for the local villagers and few vendors. However, Thai authorities and other local armed groups based in those area had requested for the opening of the BP1 for the development of the area and there is likelihood that it will be opened in the near future according to the township administrator. Current road condition is suitable for 6 wheeler trucks.  Constraints: security, no proper setup for border pass in place yet. Distance: 16km, Time: 1hr, 25 km/hr average, 35 km/hr max speed.


Sittwe and Rakhine State

Travel times noted below are for 4x4 Land Cruiser / city car. For heavy trucks, travel time should be considerably increased by+/- 40-50%.

There are 3 ways connected to Rakhine from Yangon by road, via Gwa-Ngathaing Chaung, Pyay- Toungup and Minbu-Ann roads. There are several bridges on the roads around in Rakhine State. All routes in Rakhine are limited to a maximum of 16 metric tons with cargo weight limit during in rainy season. Except for the eight-wheel Express vehicles and Tanker(gasoline) which are are allowed. However, 20 metric tons truck with cargo  are allowed in dry season. Currently public express and cargo truck are restricted to use Ramaung Bridge for safety reason and only light vehicles are allowed. Waterway (Ferry) is available for heavy vehicles. The new bridge is under construction.

Distance Matrix

Travel Distance and time from Sittwe to Major Towns (km, hr)


Region

Distance (Km)

Travel Time (hr)

Ponnagyun

Central Rakhine

39 km

1 hr

Kyauk Taw

Central Rakhine

100 km

3 hrs

Mrauk Oo

Central Rakhine

146 km

3 hrs

Myinn Byar

Central Rakhine

180 km

4 hrs

Pauk Taw

Central Rakhine

212 km

5 hrs

Myae Bon

Central Rakhine

220 km

5 hrs

Rathedaung

Central Rakhine

74 km

3 hrs

Buthidaung

Northern Rakhine

130 km

5 hrs

Maungdaw

Northern Rakhine

156 km

6 hrs

Ann

Central Rakhine

32 km

9 hrs

Toungup

Central Rakhine

469 km

12 hrs

Thandwe

Central Rakhine

540 km

13 hrs

Gwa

Central Rakhine

671 km

15 hrs

Kyauk Pyu

Central Rakhine

534 km

13 hrs

Ramree

Central Rakhine

487 km

12 hrs

Ma Ei

Central Rakhine

401 km

10 hrs


Sittwe-Gwa Town: Distance (KM) and Travel Time (Hours) Matrix

Travel Time from Capital City to Major Towns (Hours) 

 

Sittwe

Ponnagyun

Kyauk Taw

Mrauk U

Minbya

Ann

Ma Ei

Toungup

Thandwe

Gwa

Sitwe

 

39 km / 1 hr

100 km / 3 hrs

146 km / 3 hrs

180 km / 4 hrs

325 km / 9 hrs

401 km / 10 hrs

469 km /12 hrs

540 km / 13 hrs

671 km / 15 hrs

Ponnagyun

39 km / 1 hr

 

61 km / 2 hrs

107 km / 2 hrs

141 km / 3 hrs

286 km / 8 hrs

362 km / 10 hrs

430 km / 11 hrs

501 km / 12 hrs

632 km / 15 hrs

Kyauk Taw

100 km / 3 hrs

61 km / 2 hrs

 

46 km / 1 hr

80 km / 2 hrs

225 km / 8 hrs

301 km / 8 hrs

369 km / 9 hrs

440 km / 11 hrs

571 km / 13 hrs

Mrauk U

146 km / 3 hrs

107 km / 2 hrs

46 km / 1 hr

 

34 km / 1 hr

179 km / 6 hrs

255 km / 7 hrs

323 km / 8 hrs

394 km / 10 hrs

525 km / 12 hrs

Minbya

180 km / 4 hrs

141 km / 3 hrs

80 km / 2 hrs

34 km / 1 hr

 

145 km / 5 hrs

221 km / 6 hrs

289 km / 8 hrs

360 km / 9 hrs

491 km / 11 hrs

Ann

325 km / 9 hrs

286 km / 8 hrs

225 km / 8 hrs

179 km / 6 hrs

145 km / 5 hrs

 

76 km / 1 hr

144 km / 3 hrs

215 km / 4 hrs

346 km / 6 hrs

Ma Ei

401 km / 10 hrs

362 km / 10 hrs

301 km / 8 hrs

255 km / 7 hrs

221 km / 6 hrs

76 km / 1 hr

 

68 km / 1 hr

139 km / 3 hrs

270 km / 5 hrs

Toungup

469 km /12 hrs

430 km / 11 hrs

369 km / 9 hrs

323 km / 8 hrs

289 km / 8 hrs

144 km / 3 hrs

68 km / 1 hr

 

71 km / 1 hr

202 km /4 hrs

Thandwe

540 km / 13 hrs

501 km / 12 hrs

440 km / 11 hrs

394 km / 10 hrs

360 km / 9 hrs

215 km / 4 hrs

139 km / 3 hrs

71 km / 1 hr

 

131 km / 2 hrs

Gwa

671 km / 15 hrs

632 km / 15 hrs

571 km / 13 hrs

525 km / 12 hrs

491 km / 11 hrs

346 km / 6 hrs

270 km / 5 hrs

202 km /4 hrs

131 km / 2 hrs

 

 Travel Time from Capital City to Major Towns (Hours)

 

Sittwe

Ponnagyun

Rathedaung

Buthidaung

Maungdaw

Sitwe

 

39 km / 1 hr

74 km / 3 hrs

130 km / 5 hrs

156 km / 6 hrs

Ponnagyun

39 km / 1 hr

 

35 km / 2 hrs

91 km / 4 hrs

117 km /5 hrs

Rathedaung

74 km / 3 hrs

35 km / 2 hrs

 

56 km / 2 hrs

82 km / 3 hr

Buthidaung

130 km / 5 hrs

91 km / 4 hrs

56 km / 2 hrs

 

26 km / 1 hr

Maungdaw

156 km / 6 hrs

117 km /5 hrs

82 km / 3 hr

26 km / 1 hr

 

 Travel Time from Capital City to Major Towns (Hours / Days)

  

Minbya

Myae Bon

Pauk Taw

Minbya

 

40 km / 2 hrs

32 km / 2 hrs

Myae Bon

40 km / 2 hrs

 

72 km / 3 hr

Pauk Taw

32 km / 2 hrs

72 km / 3 hr

 

 Travel Time from Capital City to Major Towns (Hours / Days)

 

Ma Ei

Kyauk Pyu

Ma Ei

 

133 km /3 hrs

Kyauk Pyu

133 km /3 hrs

 


Road Assessment Overview

RouteCommentsConstraints
Sittwe-MinbyaSittwe to Minbya primary road are in good condition and It is suitable for 6-wheeler trucks. However, a bridge near Kan Sauk Hill are old but public express are allowed to use them.Highly risk to travel by road in Kyauk Taw, Mrauk U and Minbya area due to the current security tension in Rakhine. Distance: 180km, Time: 4hr10min, 40 km/hr average, 45 km/hr max speed.
Minbya-AnnMinbya to Ann is quite a hilly route in good condition but have many curvy roads. Heavy vehicles such as public express and cargo trucks are required to use the Ferry (water way) to cross the river near Ramaung bride since the new Ramaung bridge is under construction.High risk of travel by road due to fighting around Minbya and Myae Bon area. Distance: 145km, Time: 5hr, 29 km/hr average, 34 km/hr max speed.
Sittwe-Ponnagyun-RathedaungSittwe to Ponnagyun section isin good condition. Road between Ponnagyun and Rathedaung is in very good condition as it is newly constructed, and some parts are still under construction.Security as there are highly risk around Ratheduang. Distance: 74km, Time: 2hr40min, 28 km/hr average, 35 km/hr max speed.
Rathedaung-Buthidaung-MaungdawThe road between Maungdaw and Buthidaung is manageable, but there are military checkpoints along the route, where travel authorizations are checked. Road conditions are mostly fine along the section between Buthidaung  andSittwe. at the section between Buthidaung - Rathedaung, some of bridges are still under construction. Currently cargo truck cannot use this route.In the rainy season, loaded trucks are not allowed from Rathedaung to Buthidaung and security risk is high around Ratheduang. Distance: 82 km, Time: 3hr, 27 km/hr average, 35 km/hr max speed.
Minbya-PauktawRoad condition is good. Along to Pauktaw is concrete road but some part is Macadamised road.2 bridges are aged, but 6-Wheeler cargo truck can pass. However the bridge can only accommodate vehicles weighing 13 tonnes. Distance: 32.3km, Time: 1hr30min, 22 km/hr average, 26km/hr max speed.
Minbya-MyaebonThe road condition is mostly good and 6-wheeler cargo truck can go to Myae Bon by road. The total distance is 40km and 16km with concrete road and the rest distance 24km are Macadamised road.No special constraints. Distance: 40km, Time: 1hr30min, 26 km/hr average, 30 km/hr max speed.
Ann-Maei-ToungupIt can be classified as secondary road with narrow, sharp turns uphill and downhill route on the way to Ma ei. It is suitable for 6-wheeler trucks and not suitable for 10-wheeler trucks.Steep and winding road. Distance: 144km, Time: 2hr30min, 55km/hr average, 60km/hr max speed.
Maei-Kyauk PyuIt can be classified as tertiary road with flat surface. Some parts are still under construction however public express has already utilized this road. The route is suitable for 6-wheeler trucks. 45km section crosses the mangrove forest area up to Kyauk Pyu.Several bridges are damaged and are currently under repair. Distance: 133km, Time 3hr, 44 km/hr average, 47 km/hr max speed.
Toungup-Thandwe-GwaRoad condition is good with many parts of this section are under maintenance. It is accessible throughout the year with regular bus line connections. This is a primary road suitable for heavy trucks.No special constraints. Distance: 202km, Time: 3 hr 40min, 55 km/hr average, 60km/hr max speed.