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Chad Roads

For information on Chad Road Network contact details, please see the following link:

4.1 Chad Government Contact List

Located in Central Africa at an average altitude of 200 meters, Chad is a large Sahelian country stretching over 2,000 km from north to south and 1,000 km from east to west, covering an area of 1,284 .000 km².

Totally landlocked, it shares 5,676 km of borders with 6 bordering countries, including:

• 1,055 km to the north with Libya along an almost straight line

• 1,360 km to the east with Sudan.

• 1,197 km to the south with the Central African Republic.

• 889 km to the southwest with Nigeria (89 km of common territorial waterscon Lake Chad) and Cameroon (800 km).

• 1,175 km to the west with Niger

Chad's road network, both paved and unpaved, is very poorly rarely maintained. According to official road authorities 6000 km of asphalted roads are planned of which a total of 2,086 km are paved and open to the traffic at end of 2014. A 380-km construction project is underway. 

4 large asphalting projects planned since 2010 are ongoing and constructions are realized by one Chinese enterprise and Arab Contractor an Egyptian enterprise.

  • Moundou Doba – Koumra (190 km);
  • Massaget – Massakory (72 km)
  • Bokoro – Arboutchatak (65 km);
  • Abeche – Am Himede – Oul Hadjer – Mongo.

Summary of Role and Services:

  • Inventory of the road rehabilitation;
  • Plannification of new roads construction;
  • Technical follow up road under contruction;
  • Maintenance of the realized roads.

National Road Network 

As a reminder, Chad suffers from poor transport in the country and to foreign markets. During the rainy season, internal roads become impassable and the economy slows to near-idle. There are no ports or rail system in the country. Most rivers flow, but intermittently. In September and October, the Logone is navigable between N'Djamena and Moundou, and the Shari between N'Djamena and Sarh. The rivers cover 4,800 km of which 2,000 km are simply navigable all year round by small boats. The nearest port is located on the Atlantic Ocean in Douala, Cameroon at 1700 kilometers from N'Djamena. Two ancient land routes connect Chad to the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. The first, more than 3000 kilometers, through the difficult desert tracks, leads north to the port of Benghazi in Libya and the second, to the Red Sea via Sudan to Port Sudan, is 2,600 kilometers from Abéché and 3,350 kilometers kilometers from N'Djamena. The country's external traffic (import and export) is carried on the route of the road and rail from Douala to N'Djamena via N'Gaoundéré. Due to Nigeria's internal political difficulties, Nigeria's route has been intermittently closed to Chadian traffic, leaving open only the Cameroonian road to the surface of the traffic in and out of Chad that depends largely on Cameroon's rail system for the transport of Chadian exports and imports to and from the port of Douala.

Roads of all categories making up Chad's domestic road network total 40,000 km, including 25,000 km of roads of national or regional interest and 15,000 km of service roads of local interest.

The 25.000 km of roads of national or regional interest, placed under the management of the Ministry in charge of the infrastructures of the opening and the transport, were the subject of an exhaustive inventory in 1999 during the elaboration of the National Strategy of Transports (2000 - 2009). They understand:

  • 6.200 km of roads constituting the national structuring network and broken down according to their practicability in National Permanent Network (RNP: 2.578 km) and in Seasonal National Network (RNS: 3.622 km)
  • 18,800 km of roads constituting the Regional Road Network (RRR) linking the intermediate local authorities (region or department) to the national structuring network.

The 15,000 km of service roads of local interest have never been the subject of an exhaustive inventory. They include two networks:

  • The rural network, located upstream of the network of roads of national or regional interest, and consisting mainly of service roads of local communities; this network, which is not the responsibility of the Ministry responsible for infrastructure for opening and transport, is left to the initiative of local authorities and is not managed in an organized manner;
  • The urban network made up of community roads in towns and villages, the management of which is the responsibility of the decentralized territorial communities, with technical and financial support from the State, especially for the implementation of major works.

Road density, like that of the population, varies greatly depending on the climatic zones, ranging from a density of 6.4 km / 1.000 km² in the Saharan zone to 27.2 in the Sahelian zone and 40.5 in the Sudanian zone. The national highway system includes paved roads and dirt roads. The dirt roads are distinguished by their level of development according to four technical standards: landscaped dirt road, rough dirt road, runway and natural terrain. Road counts are carried out twice a year on the national road network by the Road Maintenance Fund (FER) of the Ministry of Infrastructures for Access and Transport.

The road network in Chad is very poor. On a projection of 6000 km on the national map financed by European Development Fund (FED), 2082 km only were bitumen in late 2014. The rest of the network is either made by laterite, gravel or simply stabilized sand. To facilitate the use of these roads, profiling operations are often undertaken during the dry season. Except in some rare cases, the capitals of regions are connected by tracks that are only accessible during the dry season. It is important to note that 2,000 km of tracks realized in the Interior of the country are cut off by the Ouadis and remain inaccessible for a period of 1 to 3 months depending on the location. On these roads rains-barriers are erected to regulate the traffic after the rains.

Rural network

The transport of agricultural products from villages to rural markets is generally carried out by rudimentary means of transport (man, animal, cart, rickshaw, tote). The precariousness of the tracks means that passenger road traffic in rural areas is low and transport is carried out by traditional means. On developed trails, mixed motorized transport is generally applied. Rural transport in Chad is centered around weekly markets. In each space, there may be a village or village community that has a market every day of the week. Each market will serve a group of villages that will visit this market once a week. Rural communities are usually within 30 km of the nearest market and transport their goods as well as their goods using Intermediate Transport Vehicles (MIT) and porterage. Merchants use motorized vehicles to travel between different markets at different days of the week to buy the products. Daily markets can be more than 50 km apart. The abundance of products in the markets means that goods can be easily amalgamated for transport by motorized services. The relative proximity of the markets means that villagers often use ITMs to transport the village to the market. Traffic on rural roads is generally very low except on market days. It is also very seasonal with a peak during the harvest season.

LIST OF SECTIONS NATIONAL ROAD NETWORK:

Liaison

Km

Réseau national permanent

 

N'Djamena - Djermaya

27  

Djermaya - Dandi - Karal

89  

N'gueli - Walia - Farcha

27  

N'Djamena - Mandalia

49  

Mandalia - Kalgoa

44  

Kalgoa - Guelengdeng

63  

Guelengdeng - Bongor - Ere

159  

Ere - Kelo

50  

Kelo - Moundou (entrée) et Traversée de Moundou

116  

Djermaya - Massaguet

46  

Massaguet - N'Goura

125  

N'Goura - Bokoro

104  

Bokoro - Arboutchatak

65  

Arboutchatak - Bitkine

78

Bitkine - Mongo

59

Mongo - Mangalme

129

Mangalmé - Oum Hadjer

111  

Oum Hadjer - Abéché

146  

Massaguet - Massakory

68  

Moundou - Koutéré (Ftière Cam.)

118  

N'Djamena - Dourbali

100

Moundou - Doba

100

Doba - Koumra

88  

Bretelle de Bédjondo

11  

Koumra - Sahr

110  

Sarh - Banda - Maro - Frontière RCA

  125  

Guelengdeng - Mogo

149  

Kelo-Pala

104  

Pala - Frtière Cam.

122  

Massakory - Bol

181  

Abeche - Ftière Soudan

174  

Abeche - Biltine

92

Aboudeia - Mongo

121  

Réseau national saisonnier

 

Arada-Kalaït-Fada

372

Abeche - Am Zoer- Guéréda-Iriba-Tiné

295

Abeche - Goz Beida

211

Abou Deia - Am Timam

138

Ati - Mongo

154

Bitkine - Melfi

121

Binder - Léré

53

Bokoro - N'Gama

61

Bongor - Ftière Cam.

7

Kélo - Gounou Gaya - Tikem

110

Djoumane - Laï -Gabri ngolo

108

Gabri ngolo - Doba

96

Ham - Fianga

72

Dourbali - Massenya

55

Fianga - Binder

85

Fianga - Pala

72

NGaboulo-Goundi

45

Goz Beida - Am Timan

208

Doba - Goré

100

Kelo - Laï

59

Kélo - Doher - Benoye -Moundou

125

Koumra - Moissala

74

Kouno - Nguere

96

Laï - Koumra

158

Mao - Mondo - N'Gouri

74

Mbaikoro - Gore - Békoninga

113

Mogo -  Kouno

131

Ngoura - Ati - Oum Hadjer

405

Sahr - Banda

2574

Sahr - Kyabé

99

Ngouri - Mao

60

Aboudeia - Mangalmé

122

Amtiman - Haraze Mangueye

164

Kemdéré - Moïssala

127

Massakory - Moussoro

135

Distance Matrix

Distances from Capital City to Major Towns (km)

 

Ndjamena

Ndjamena

Ndjamena

Ndjamena

Ndjamena

Ndjamena

Ndjamena

Ndjamena

Ati

450

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abeche

 

900

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moundou

 

 

515

 

 

 

 

 

Sarh

 

 

 

782

 

 

 

 

Doba

 

 

 

 

572

 

 

 

Bongor

 

 

 

 

 

235

 

 

Faya

 

 

 

 

 

 

1100

 

Mongo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

525

Time Travel Matrix

Travel Time from Capital City to Major Towns (Hours / Days)

Capital

Ndjamena

Ndjamena

Ndjamena

Ndjamena

Ndjamena

Ndjamena

Ndjamena

Ndjamena

Ati

5 hours

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abeche

 

1 day

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moundou

 

 

6 hours

 

 

 

 

 

Sarh

 

 

 

10 hours

 

 

 

 

Doba

 

 

 

 

7h15

 

 

 

Bongor

 

 

 

 

 

2h30

 

 

Faya

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 days

 

Mongo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6 hours

Road Security

According to UNDSS, road safety at the national level in the Republic of Chad is a serious matter.

  • Cases of car theft and banditry are common especially on unpaved road sections.

  • Night driving should always be avoided; military escorts are mandatory on the eastern roads bordering Sudan and in the northern part of the country.

About road safety:

  • Many car accidents are recorded on the asphalted roads and on the rough roads in the East region.

  • 75% of accidents are due to excessive speed, overloading old trucks and poor road conditions.

Weighbridges

On the asphalted roads in the southern part of the country, all bridges are built in concrete material. However, traffic on some of these bridges could be restricted for heavy trucks to respect the payload and the durability of the pave. Many new weighbridges are under construction on the main roads. In these roads, many other mobiles brigade’s weighbridge equipped with modern axle-scales are operated.

  • Maximum Authorized Load (PTAC): 32 tons maximum axle load are authorized.
  • Size: width 2,5 m / height 4 m. this restriction is not always respected by any Chadian transporters

Before the multiplication of weighing stations, it was common for trucks to load as much as possible until 50 mt of cargo.

Now the maximum tonnage a truck can load is limited to 32 Mt.  In case of none respect of the PTAC obligations, amends are imposed as follow:

  • Overweight > 5 tons an amend of 25,000 F CFA/ extra ton is paid;
  • Overweight between 5 and 10 tons an amend of 50,000 F CFA/ extra ton is paid;
  • Overweight > 10 tons an amend of 75,000 F CFA/ extra ton is paid.

Axle Load Limits

Vehicles in Chad should not exceed the following weight payload:

  • Simple axle: 13 T
  • Double axel: 21 T
  • Triple axel: 32 T

Axle load limits

LCA Country

Transit Country

Truck with 2 axles

Chad (21 Tons)

Cameroon (21 tons)

Truck with 3 axles

Chad (32 Tons)

Cameroon (21 Tons)

Bridges

There are many bridges realized recently in southern and eastern part of Chad on the highways newly constructed.

Many bridges are built on the new routes to the South and East of the country. These bridges are well built according to international standards by renowned companies. These bridges can handle payloads trucks allowed in Chad (40 tons).

According to the General Director of Roads, the government is implementing a project pertaining to the construction of concrete bridges over the Ouadis having 100 meters of width and radiers on the Ouadis having 8 m large or less.

Location

Road Stretch

Abeche - Mongo

Distance from origin

350 Km

Closest city

Oum Hadjer

Dimensions

Length

40

Meters

Width

8

Meters

Height

7

Meters

Characteristics

Material

Concrete

Road Surface

Concrete

Condition

Good

Capacity

Normal Capacity

At least 40 MT

Estimated Capacity Considering Damage

None

Road Class

Classification

Administering Agency

Network Length

National Roads asphalted

Direction Generale des Routes

2082 km

National Roads none asphalted (gravel, laterite)

Direction generale des Routes

7,480

Regional and departmental Roads (leveling sand)

Regional authorities

N/A

Rural Roads (grass and sandy)

Local autorities

N/A

Classification

Road Description

Class: National Roads (asphalted)

 from Ndjamena to main 5 Towns: Abeche, Massakory, Bongor, Koutere, Sarh

Class: National Roads (Laterite)

Southen region between main towns

Class: Regional Roads

Pistes  stabilazed with laterite and gravel between regional owns

Class: Departmental Rods classified

Pistes none stabilazed

Class: Rural Roads (Non-clasified)

Road between villages sendy and sometimes on glass

Statistics of the existing roads in Chad

Routes bitumées

   2,082  

Routes en terre

   5,398  

Total

   7,480  

Surface Conditions

On a 6000 km projection, only 2082 km were asphalted by the end of 2014. The rest of the network is either laterite, gravel or simply stabilized sand. To facilitate the use of these roads, leveling operations are undertaken during the dry season. It should be noted that 2,000 km of trails in the interior of the country are cut by the wadis and remain inaccessible for a period of 1 to 3 months depending on the location. On these roads rain barriers are erected to regulate the traffic.

Rain Barriers

During the wet season, only paved roads remain passable. Traffic on unpaved roads may be restricted by rain barriers for some hours or days depending on the quantity of the rains and the type of vehicle passing the road. As a legal national decree defined by the Ministry of Infrastructures and Transport since 2008, according to 3 major criteria amongst others: road frequency, the condition of the road (muddy) and security reasons. Under the control of Gendarmerie forces, the Companies in charge of rain barrier are implementing a strict control for the respect of the rule at least 3 months. As an administrative public restrictions traffic must always respect the rain gates and waiting time if raining, however a special exemption can be according by the Ministry of Infrastructures and Transports in case of well justified humanitarian emergency.

The small cars restriction does not exceed 2 hours after the rains, trucks can therefore be stopped for many hours or days.

In case of violation of the rule, the following amends might be applied:

  • 500.000 F CFA to be paid by the vehicle owner;
  • Revocation of the driving license for the driver;
  • Participation in the rehabilitation of the road section damaged by the vehicle

In Chad, the major road transport constraints are the various Ouadis that cut off many access roads in the Sahel area and particularly in the Eastern part of the country during the raining season. This phenomenon blocks all the access facilities for around 5 months from July to October. 

Ouadis (drifts)

In Chad, the main constraints of road transport are the different wadis that cut many access roads in the Sahel region and especially in the eastern part of the country during the rainy season. This phenomenon blocks all access facilities for about 5 months from July to October. The Wadi is a torrent of water and mud that descends from the slopes and is released into a shallow wadi. The height of a Wadi (water and mud) can reach 2 to 3 meters.

This well-known phenomenon has led WFP to anticipate distribution by pre-positioning 3 to 5 months of food for storage in distribution areas before the start of the rainy season.

Before that the Government took the decision to implement the barriers of rain and construct concrete bridges, the Ouadis have caused much damages in Chad. On some most famous Ouadis namely Moutarare and Amdout, in the East between Oum Hadjer and Abeche area, the government has erected bridges to lift the isolation of this region.

Table below gives position of Ouadis which have created a lot of bottlenecks and loss to the transportors.

Location

Name of Ouadi

Distance from Departure Point / KM

Observations

Bokoro

Ban-Bang

10

Bridge is on construction

Moussoro

Amsilep 1 and 2

18 and 38

A big obstacle during wed season

Abeche to Oum Hadjer

Disko

57

Bridge is done

Abeche to Oum Hadjer

Kao

94

Bridge is done

Abeche to Farchana

Chope

22

Still active

Abeche to Farchana

Moura

38

Still active

Farchana to Adre

Farcha

19

Still active

Farchana to Adre

Not known

27

Still active