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The transportation sector is one of the main drivers of economic development and growth in Egypt, linking production and consumption markets. Egypt’s unique geographic location combined with an expanding infrastructure base is enhancing the country’s position as a key global logistics hub. Egypt is currently embarking on a host of transportation projects in metros and tunnels, railways, ports, and roads. 

Roads 

Roads play a key role in Egypt transport network, with 94% of Egypt’s freight using roads. Egypt has climbed from the 118th in 2014 in the global road’s quality ranking to 75th in 2018. 

Egypt's government spent LE 22.5 billion to build 5,000 km of new roads and renovate and develop others. 2018 saw the new roads significantly reduce the traffic accidents in Egypt. In September 2018, the Egyptian President inaugurated road projects worth LE 7 billion; six over-the-Nile bridges have been completed and another ten are still under construction.  

At a cost of LE 36 billion, Egypt will increase its roads in km from 24,000 to about 29,000. Most prominently, the government has focused on highways. It is expected that all road developments within this project will be complete by 2020; the roads established as a result of this project will constitute about 20% of all roads in Egypt. 

The government plans a series of road upgrades, including: 

  • Egypt MOT - The National Roads Project - Phase 1 - Ahmad Hamdi Tunnel Link. 
  • Egypt MOT - The National Roads Project - Phase 1 - Assiut/Sohag/Red Sea Road. 
  • Egypt MOT - The National Roads Project - Phase 1 - Cairo to Suez Road Enhancement. 
  • Egypt MOT - The National Roads Project - Phase 1 - Eastern Circular Sector Road. 
  • Egypt MOT - The National Roads Project - Phase 1 - Eastern Ring Road. 
  • Egypt MOT - The National Roads Project - Phase 1 - Faiyum/Wahat Road. 
  • Egypt MOT - The National Roads Project - Phase 1 - Farafra/Ain Dallah Road. 
  • Egypt MOT - The National Roads Project - Phase 1 - Khashm El Raqba Road. 
  • Egypt MOT - The National Roads Project - Phase 1 - Minya/Ras Gharib Road. 
  • Egypt MOT - The National Roads Project - Phase 1 - Qena to Safaga Road. 
  • Egypt MOT - The National Roads Project - Phase 1 - Regional Ring Road. 
  • Egypt MOT - The National Roads Project - Phase 1 - Sheikh Fadl to Ras Gharib Road. 
  • Egypt MOT - The National Roads Project - Phase 1 - Shubra to Banha Road. 
  • Egypt MOT - The National Roads Project - Phase 1 - Shubra to Banha Road Expansion - Sector 2. 
  • Egypt MOT - The National Roads Project - Phase 1 - Sohag to Al Ghardaqa. 
  • Egypt MOT - The National Roads Project - Phase 1 - Wadi Al Natrun to Al Alamein Road 
  • Egypt MOT - The National Roads Project - Phase 3 - Cairo/Western Assiut Road. 
  • Egypt MOT - The National Roads Project - Phase 3 Suez to Ahmad Hamdi Tunnel Road. 
  • Egypt MOT - The National Roads Project - Phase 3 Wahat Road/6th October.  

Ports 

The government is reported to be planning to triple trade handled by ports in Egypt and has drafted a long-term plan to raise ports capacity from 120 million tonnes to 370 million tonnes by 2030. 

The Red Sea Ports Authority (RSPA) manages nine ports in the Red Sea: Portawfik, Petroleum Basin Port, AdabeyaSukhnaHurghadaSafaga, El-Tur, Sharm El-Sheikh and Nweiba. The RSPA is responsible for constructing and periodically maintaining the marine quays of all nine ports, and for servicing the ships using these ports. 

The RSPA announced plans to construct dry bulk, container and mixed-use terminals along the nine ports managed by the authority. RSPA has planned 15 projects with an average value of US$ 60 million; and eight projects with an average value of US$ 400 million. 

The most notable projects will take place in Soukhna Port, which lies south of Suez and forms part of the Suez Canal Area Development Project (SCADP) 

Constructing, operating and managing a Liquid Bulk Terminal

  • Capacity: 15 million tonnes of oils per year 
  • Quay: 2,000 m long; 14 - 17 m deep 
  • Land area: 900,000 m2 
  • Estimated Capex: US$ 650 million 

https://egyptoil-gas.com/news/liquid-bulk-terminal-to-receiver-500m-in-financing/ 

Constructing, operating and managing a Dry Bulk Terminal

  • Capacity: 12 million tonnes per year 
  • Quay: 1700 m long; 17 m deep 
  • Land area: 720,000 m2 
  • Capex: US$ 500 million 

Constructing, operating and managing an Agricultural Crops Terminal

  • Capacity: 8 million tonnes per year 
  • Quay: 1,100 m long; 14 - 17 m deep 
  • Land area: 580,000 m2 
  • Capex: US$ 360 million 

Constructing, operating and managing a Second Containers Terminal

  • Capacity: 5 million equivalent containers per year 
  • Quay: 2,200 m long; 17 m deep 
  • Land area: 2,000,000 m2 
  • Capex: US$ 650 million 

Constructing, operating and managing Dry Bulk Terminal No. 2

  • Capacity: 8 million tonnes per year 
  • Quay: 1,100 m long; 17 m deep 
  • Land area: 510,000 m2 
  • Capex: US$ 287 million 

Constructing, operating and managing a Third Container Terminal

  • Capacity: 6 million equivalent containers per year 
  • Quay: 2,500 m long; 17 m deep 
  • Land area: 1,700,000 m2 
  • Capex: US$ 715 million 

Constructing, Operating and Managing Multi-purpose Terminal (1)

  • Capacity: 2 million tonnes per year 
  • Quay: 580 m long; 17 m deep 
  • Land area: 400,000 m2 
  • Capex: US$ 143 million 

Constructing, Operating and Managing Multi-purpose Terminal (2)

  • Capacity: 2 million tonnes per year 
  • Quay: 750 m long; 17 m deep 
  • Land area: 370,000 m2 
  • Capex: US$ 173 million 

Railways 

The co-chairman of the Egyptian National Railways (ENR) announced a US$ 10 billion investment over 10 years to upgrade and maintain the antiquated railways network; with US$ 2.2 billion coming from the World Bank. The investment will upgrade the rolling stock, rail Infrastructure, as well as training and knowledge transfer. Egypt has plans to expand and upgrade its rail network. There are plans to connect Luxor and Hurghada by a railway line, and to build light rail to connect Cairo with its two main satellite cities: 6th October in the west and New Cairo in the east. However, the most notable railway project is the High-Speed Rail (HSR) from Alexandria to Aswan. HSR is a new railway alignment dedicated for the high-speed train between Alexandria and Aswan through Cairo, Assiut and Luxor. The line is planned to be built in three phases: 

Phase I: Cairo - Alexandria 

A pre-feasibility study has been conducted by an Italian company, and indicated the following key parameters: 

  • Line length: 202 km 
  • The running speed: 300-350km/h 
  • Execution duration: 5 years 
  •  Trip time: 60 minutes non-stop 
  •  Expected passengers: from 10 to 18 million/year 
  • Capex estimate: US$ 3.5 billion 

Phase II: Cairo - Luxor 

The development of the tender document and TOR for the feasibility study is ongoing. The basic data of the line are: 

  • Line length: 680 km 
  • The running speed: 300-350 km/h 
  • Execution duration: 8 years 
  • Expected passengers: 25 to 30 million/year 

Phase III: Luxor - Aswan 

The development of the tender document and TOR for the feasibility study is ongoing. The basic data of the line are: 

  • Line length: 210 km 
  • The running speed: 300 -350km/h 
  • Expected passengers: 25 to 30 million/year 

In 2018 with the successful implementation of the country’s largest project to improve railway efficiency and infrastructure came at a cost of LE 12.5 billion. The results of the project will be presented next year, along with the purchase of 1,300 coaches at a cost of LE21 billion alongside 100 locomotives. The ministry has already completed the largest and most difficult part of investment, which is investing in infrastructure such as with a new project to electrify train signals in accordance with international standards, allowing trains to go up to 140 km/hour.