Colombia ranks 57th in global competitiveness among 141 WEF countries.
Logistics performance has improved in recent years, as indicated by the most recent data from the World Bank's Logistics Performance Index (LPI)*. In 2018, as the study shows, Colombia rose 36 positions in this matter, going from 94 to 58, among 160 nations.
Colombia, however, can improve its competitiveness by optimizing the times and costs of mobilizing products, from the supply phase to their arrival at the final consumer. One of the ways is through multimodal transport facilitating the movement of goods in a fluid way, efficiently using the shipping, air or land transport infrastructure, such as rail, barge trucks and other logistics assets.
The logistics operators sector is characterized by a series of factors such as the strong trend towards globalization, the demand for the provision of new and better services, the consolidation of alliances, mergers and acquisitions between organizations, the need to have better levels of service to customers and the search to reduce logistics costs, among other elements.
Regarding port infrastructure, Colombia has 9 port areas; 7 of them on the Caribbean coast and 2 on the Pacific coast with a fundamental role in foreign trade. Currently, more than 90% of the country's exports and imports are made through this route. The main ports located in Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta and Buenaventura have adequate facilities and equipment to handle large ships and to handle different types of cargo (Containers, Bulk, General Cargo). Likewise, these ports have adequate storage facilities.
In reference to river transport, Colombia has 4 navigable basins: Magdalena, Meta, Amazonas and Atrato with 29,498 navigable km. Of those kilometers, 38% can be used by ships of more than 25 tons of capacity and the remaining 62% by ships of less than 25 tons of capacity. Unfortunately, the river transport modality has a very low use; it represents only 1.23% of the internal movement of cargo.
The national road network presents significant delays due to the very low investment in this area. The following can be verified: only 8.5% of the road network (204,855 km) belongs to the primary network, while 22% and 69.5% belongs to the secondary and tertiary network, respectively. The main corridors are: "Magdalena Medio Corridor" that connects the Caribbean Coast with the central region of the country (Bogotá capital and surroundings); "Corredor del Llano" that connects Bogotá with the eastern area ("Llanos Orientales"); "West Corridor" that connects the downtown area with the port of Buenaventura, and finally the "Pan American Corridor" that connects the southwest region (including the city of Cali) with the border with Ecuador.
The railway line is made up of 3,338 km, of which 1,725 km (52%) are out of operation due to damage, invasions or illegal occupations. The remaining 1,613 km have been given by the government to different private concessions for operation and maintenance. However, 1,203 km (36% of the total railway line) are only used for cargo transportation.
Finally, the country has 54 airports, of which 14 serve international operations. For the period 2015-2018, investments of 2.3 billion pesos are foreseen, for the modernization represented in the expansion of the facilities, additional landing strips and aeronautical devices due to the increase in the movement of passengers and cargo.