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Tajikistan Humanitarian Background

Disasters, Conflicts and Migration

Natural Disasters

Yes / No

Comments / Details



Oct 2008 – 800,000 people affected

May 2000 – 3,000,000 people affected



1 July 2016 

7 December 2015 affected over 5,000 people, displaced 654 people, including 354 children. 

5 Jan 2010- 6,915 people affected  

29 Jun 2006 – 15,427 affected


Yes13 Feb 1997 – 15,618 affected

Extreme Temperatures

YesExtreme winter conditions on January 2008 – 2,000,000 affected


  • Jun 2010 – 16,000 affected
  • Apr 2007 – 17,184 affected
  • Jun 2004 – 400,000 affected
  • April 1998 – 40,974 affected
  • May 1996 – 180,000 affected
  • May 1993 – 75,357 affected
  • May 1992 – 63,500 affected

Insect Infestation

YesA locust infestation in the spring followed the extremely cold winter of 2007-08 accompanied by localized droughts causing a poor harvest. 



July 16, 2015 – GBAO 1,033 people (52% of population) were affected by the natural disaster and were in in need of food assistance. 

August 2002 – Rasht, 75 homes destroyed (24 deaths)  

Snow avalanches and landslides periodically cause closure of mountain highways, particularly between Khujand and Dushanbe, but rarely for more than one day.

Moreover, erosion and land degradation, weather conditions and poor infrastructure development, lead to regular mudslides, floods, rock falls, avalanches and other natural disasters that can displace villagers and cause crop losses.

Volcanic Eruptions


High Waves / Surges




High Winds


Other Comments


Man-Made Issues

Civil Strife


1992 – 1997 Civil war in Tajikistan

The conflict and its aftermath resulted in the deaths of over 50,000 people and led to a humanitarian catastrophe, with some 1.2 million becoming refugees or internally displaced persons.

The "General Agreement on the Establishment of Peace and National Accord in Tajikistan" signed on 27th June 1997 in Moscow, Russia, ending the war.

International Conflict


Internally Displaced Persons


500,000 – 600,000 people were internally displaced within Tajikistan during the civil war in 1992 – 1997

Refugees Present


Landmines / UXO Present

YesMost are on the border areas with Uzbekistan in the north near the Panjakent crossing and in the south near Afghanistan. They are placed by Uzbek authorities to prevent drug smuggling. 

Other Comments


For more detailed database on disasters by country, please see the Centre for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters:

EMDAT website information on Tajikistan

Calamities and Seasonal Affects

Seasonal Affects on Transport



From (month) to (month)

Primary Road Transport

Winter snowfall often closes the Osh – Khorog route, as the mountain pass en route is 4,700 meters high. Due to the high altitude and cold weather in winter only 5 MT gasoline trucks are used in GBAO region. Snowfalls from November till May can close the roads between Dushanbe to Darwaz (Khobu Robot pass) and Dushanbe to Khujand (Anzob pass) for 3-7 days.

Depends on the winter season the road from China through Murgab to Dushanbe in winter is not so active.

Nov - May

Secondary Road Transport


Rail Transport

The trucking sector, with several large firms and about 10,000 (?) vehicles from 10 to 40 mt capacity including almost 500 belonging to 36 companies with permits for international hauling, is well organized and expanding steadily.Mar - May

Air Transport

Air transport, especially domestic flights, can be cancelled or delayed by bad weather.Jan - Dec

Waterway Transport


Capacity and Contacts for In-Country Emergency Response

In 2016, the UN and GovT of Tajikistan signed an Agreement concerning measures to expedite import, export and transit of relief consignments and possessions of relief personnel in the event of disasters and emergencies through custom office. 

Disaster Management in Tajikistan: The main governmental body responsible for responding to emergencies is the Committee of Emergency Situations and Civil Defense (CoES). CoES, together with the UN Disaster Risk Management Project, created in 2001 the Rapid Emergency Assessment and Coordination Team (REACT) comprising representatives of both governmental and nongovernmental structures, UN agencies, international and local NGOs. (Contact person: Firuza Tursunzoda CoES, REACT focal point, +992 884000004). 

REACT was established to promote the sharing of information, logistics and other resources between all partners active in disaster management. The group, involving over 50 state, local and international organisations and entities, meets regularly to coordinate and share experiences on issues related to various areas of disaster management, including preparedness, response, mitigation and capacity building activities with national bodies. During emergency situations, REACT works closely together, coordinating response and assistance. 

REACT is divided into five sectoral groups lead by UN agencies: food security, logistics and ICT (led by WFP); non-food items including shelter (lead by UNHCR); health (lead by WHO); water/sanitation; and education (both led by UNICEF). The sectoral groups are composed of the lead agencies plus those organisations most active in the specific sector. The purpose of establishing sectoral groups is to ensure that necessary measures are taken before, during and after an emergency to secure preparedness and effective and coordinated response. The sectoral groups undertake assessments in their specific field during an emergency and share this information in an adequate manner with REACT focal point. Coordination amongst these five sectoral groups will be maintained and lead by the REACT group. Monthly meetings of the REACT group partners are established. 

Neither CoES nor the Red Crescent Society (RCS) maintain emergency food stocks but they do maintain small stocks of blankets, tents and NFIs. During emergencies, CoES asks the Government of Tajikistan and international organisations accredited in the Republic of Tajikistan to render possible assistance (both food and non-food) to the disaster-affected population. CoES as well as the RCS have departments/warehouses of different capacities in all the districts of the country. 

The Resident Coordinator (RC) is the designated representative of the UN Secretary-General for development operations in the country. 

For information on Tajikistan Government contacts details, please see the following link: 4.1 Tajikistan Government Contact List

For information on Tajikistan Humanitarian contact details, please see the following link: 4.2 Tajikistan Humanitarian Contact List