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Disasters, Conflicts and Migration

Natural Disasters



Comments / Details



Rice and corn crops are affected by droughts, the dry season, or the El Nino phenomenon.


YesThe fault line in Moro Gulf had caused few earthquakes but activities of fault lines in nearby provinces are also felt in the neighboring regions. Region XII is one of the seismically active regions in the country because of the presence of several active fault lines in the area. These include the M’lang Fault, Makilala-Malungon Fault, North Columbio Fault, South Columbio Fault, and the western extension of the Mindanao Fault (Cotabato- Sindangan Fault).


YesEpidemics like dengue fever, measles, polio, malaria, yellow fever, encephalitis, and recently Covid-19 affected the region.

Extreme Temperatures

YesDuring dry season, the temperature can reach up to 37 degrees Celcius with high humidity.


YesFlooding is very common during the rainy season. Flash floods are noted in some areas during severe rainy season. In Region XII, at least 341 of the region’s 1,194 barangays as highly prone to flooding while 218 are at risk of landslides.

Insect Infestation

YesInfestations of rats, army worms, and locusts occur in Region XII and BARMM.


YesMudslides due to heavy rains are a frequent occurrence.

Volcanic Eruptions

YesMt. Hibok-hibok in Camiguin Island, and Mt. Matutum and Mt. Parker in South Cotabato are active volcanoes under observation by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS). 

High Waves / Surges

YesA tsunami was recorded in Cotabato City in 1976 caused by an earthquake along the fault line in the Moro Gulf.



High Winds


Other Comments

Man-Made Issues

Civil Strife


Some armed groups based in the BARMM are said to have links to international terrorist group ISIS,  like the Maute Group, Bangsamoro Independent Freedom Fighters (BIFF) , and Abu Sayyaf.  ISIS flags were found in Abu Sayyaf camp in Maguindanao. Some armed non-government forces are also based in remote areas in the island.

International Conflict


Internally Displaced Persons

YesDisplacement of families is caused by armed conflict between the Philippine government troops and some terrorist groups both in the mainland and island provinces of the region. 

Refugees Present


Landmines / UXO Present


Other Comments

There are incidences of seasonal kidnappings and robberies.

For a more detailed database on disasters by country, please see the Centre for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters Country Profile

Seasonal Effects on Logistics Capacities

Seasonal Effects on Transport

Transport Type

Time Frame

Comments / Details

Primary Road Transport

June to December

Seasonal typhoons may destroy roads and bridges & cause landslides, hence rendering them impassable.

Secondary Road Transport

June to DecemberSeasonal typhoons may destroy roads and bridges & cause landslides along secondary roads, hence rendering them impassable.

Rail Transport


Air Transport

December to May

Heavy rains as well as strong winds can affect flights. Air transport can also be congested during pilgrimage (Hajj season). Christmas season and summertime (usually March to May) also causes airport congestion.  

Waterway Transport

June to DecemberHeavy rains & strong winds may cause the sudden cancellation of the vessel/boat sailing schedules.

Most parts of Region XII have Type a Type IV climate, this means that rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year, while some parts of the region have a Type III climate which means that seasons are not very pronounced, relatively dry from November to April, and wet during the rest of the year. Since the region seldom experiences typhoon the flow of transport industry is consistent and maintained. 

Seasonal Effects on Storage and Handling

Activity Type

Time Frame

Comments / Details


June to December

Some parts of BARMM are below sea level hence they are prone to flooding and can cause damage to stored commodities. Heavy rains may cause uncontrolled flooding near the structures which will affect the flow of operations. Structures also maybe damaged. Manufacturing companies have their own storage facilities for their raw materials and finished products.  Seasonal emergency has minimal effect.


June to DecemberLabor may be scarce during typhoons.  Cargo may get wet during handling.


Typhoons and earthquakes may cause destruction to the structures exposing the commodities to possible damages.  Power outages can also disrupt the operations.   

Capacity and Contacts for In-Country Emergency Response


The National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), formerly known as the National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC), is a working group of various government, non-government, civil sector and private sector organizations of the Government of the Republic of the Philippines established by Republic Act 10121 of 2010. It is administered by the Office of Civil Defense (OCD) under the Department of National Defense (DND). The Council is responsible for ensuring the protection and welfare of the people during disasters or emergencies. The NDRRMC plans and leads the guiding activities in the field of communication, warning signals, emergency, transportation, evacuation, rescue, engineering, health and rehabilitation, public education and auxiliary services such as firefighting and the police in the country. The Council utilizes the UN Cluster Approach in disaster management. It is the country's focal for the ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response (AADMER) and many other related international commitments.

Regional Offices of the government work hand in hand with NDRRMC during emergency.  NDRRMC is the lead agency during disaster and directing concern government agency in responding to secure, provide and safety of the people and communities.


The Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) is responsible for leading immediate disaster relief efforts.  The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) is a primary responder in disasters and have been deployed frequently to several disaster relief operations in the country in recent years. The Philippines has endured disasters that involve national and international assistance.

In times of crisis and emergencies the national government takes charge in carrying out coordinated operations. The same scenario is being followed down to the regional and local level. At the onset of the emergency, the Response Cluster of the NDRRMC and Incident Management Teams (IMTs) are activated and several teams are deployed to respond to the affected communities and individuals. Specific government agencies are responsible for leading different emergency clusters:

  • AFP – Search, rescue and retrieval;
  • Department of Health (DOH) – with sub-clusters on health services, water sanitation, mental and psycho-social support, and nutrition;
  • DSWD - Protection of internally displaced persons, Food and Non-Food Items Cluster and Camp Coordination Management Cluster;
  • OCD - Logistics – with sub-clusters on warehousing, transport, and services;
  • Philippine National Police (PNP) - Law and order;
  • Department of Education (DEPED) – Education;
  • Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) - International humanitarian assistance;
  • Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) - Management of the dead and missing;
  • Department of Information and Communications Technology (DICT) - Emergency Telecommunications.

When the response cluster and IMTs are activated, there are two scenarios on the ground – either additional assistance or augmentation is given to affected LGUs and regions, or the NDRRMC assumes command of response activities.

Once displaced residents return to their homes, search and rescue operations decrease, and businesses start to operate, a sense of normalcy is established, allowing agencies to enter the next phase: “early recovery.”

NDRRMC website:

For more information on government contact details, please see the following link: 4.1 Government Contact List.

Humanitarian Community

The interventions of the humanitarian community were more pronounced and highlighted during the major disasters that struck the region, Typhoon Bopha, and the earthquakes late 2019.  Although the national government is depending less and less on the international community during emergency, the situation in BARMM is quite different.  BARMM is still in the process of setting up itself as an independent government unit and thus has a lot to learn. This is compounded by the complex situation in the Region. Various humanitarian agencies both local and international are playing a big role in the transition period of BARMM. This also includes building the capacity of BARMM in responding to emergencies. 

For more information on humanitarian agency contact details, please see the following link: 4.2 Humanitarian Agency Contact List.

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