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Humanitarian Background

Disasters, Conflicts and Migration

Natural Disasters

Type

Occurs

Comments / Details

Drought

Yes

In 1945 an unprecedentedly severe drought caused the loss of thousands of cattle.

Earthquakes

Yes

An earthquake occurred in 1963 in Al Jabal Al Akhdar (in northeastern Libya). There is some seismic activity in Libya, especially in the north.

Epidemics

No

 

Extreme Temperatures

Yes

In 1922, a weather station in El Azizia recorded the second highest temperature ever directly measured on Earth – 56.7 degrees Celsius.

Flooding

Yes

In the years 2013, 2015 and 2017, heavy rainfall caused severe flooding.

Insect Infestation

Yes

Locusts

Mudslides

No

 

Volcanic Eruptions

No

 

High Waves / Surges

No

 

Wildfires

No

 

High Winds

No

 

Man-Made Issues

Civil Strife

Yes

The first civil war in 2011 entailed a revolt against the Gaddaffi Regime. On 20th October 2011, the last heavy fighting of the uprising came to an end in the city of Sirte.

The second civil war began in 2014 and is currently ongoing  between the Government of National Accord in the west of Libya, and Khalifa Haftar forces who mainly control areas in the east of the country.

International Conflict

No

 

Internally Displaced Persons

Yes

179,400 IDPs and 372,022 Returnees.

Refugees Present

Yes

165,478 refugees and asylum-seekers who are registered with UNHCR.

Landmines / UXO Present

Yes

These are mainly present in Benghazi.

 

For a more detailed database on disasters by country, please see the Centre for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters.

Seasonal Effects on Logistics Capacities

Seasonal Effects on Transport

Transport Type

Time Frame

Comments / Details

Primary Road Transport

Winter

Although rainfall in Libya is sporadic and rarely heavy, heavy rainfall in the winters of 2013, 2015, and 2017 in Tripoli and Benghazi caused severe flooding which led to the closure of several roads and rendered various major routes unusable. However, the situation only lasted a few days.

Secondary Road Transport

Winter

As for Primary Road Transport

Air Transport

Winter

Heavy rainfall in 2017 brought severe flooding that caused disruptions to departures from Mitiga Airport, ranging from one to a few days.



Seasonal Effects on Storage and Handling

Activity Type

Time Frame

Comments / Details

Storage

Winter

In case of floods, the routes to warehouses would be impassable for a few days. This is a rare situation but has occurred several times since 2000.  

Handling

No

No

 

Capacity and Contacts for In-Country Emergency Response

GOVERNMENT

Libya is experiencing political instability and challenges in governance; its ability to respond to emergencies is therefore very limited, including in terms of military and civil defence capabilities. However, the government and its ministries, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, the Ministry of Displacement, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Education, Central bank, etc., cooperate with the humanitarian community to ensure the smooth delivery of humanitarian services to beneficiaries. 

For more information on government contact details, please see the following link: 4.1 Libya Government Contact List

HUMANITARIAN COMMUNITY

The current crisis in Libya, caused by political instability and challenges in governance, has resulted in deteriorating security, social and economic conditions, and an absence of the rule of law. Hundreds of thousands of people across the country are living in unsafe conditions in conflict areas, with little or no access to basic household goods and essential commodities, and with limited access to functioning basic services and utilities; they are exposed to violence and are often unable to access life-saving medical assistance, essential medicines, food, safe drinking water and sanitation, shelter and education.

It is estimated that 1.3 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance. Internally displaced people, refugees and migrants, as well as returnees and non-displaced Libyans in the areas worst affected by conflict are considered to be those most in need of humanitarian assistance.

Humanitarian organizations play an important role in relieving the suffering of people in Libya. There are more than 70 UN agencies, INGOs and NGOs operating in Libya to provide the humanitarian assistance.

UNHCR is one of the UN agencies that operates many programs through partners such as IMC and Cesvi: they provide protection and life-saving assistance to displaced people, refugees and asylum-seekers and host communities. This includes supporting local public services, such as hospitals and schools.  

IOM has a significant and wide presence on the ground. They distribute NFIs, including clothes, shoes, and other basic necessities, as well as hygiene kits to IDP families and migrants. IOM has also provided immediate humanitarian assistance to several hundred migrants rescued at sea by the Libyan Coast Guard, through the provision of specialized health care including psychosocial support, clothing, hygiene articles and other basic necessities. IOM Libya is currently implementing a community stabilization program that aims to promote peace and stability for IDPs, migrants and local host communities in Libya, and to grow capacities and peace initiatives with the local authorities, NGOs and CSOs through training activities and inter/intra-community dialogue.IOM also established a Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) with the purpose of providing accurate and timely information on the locations and movements of IDPs, returnees and migrants.

ICRC distributes aid to beneficiaries in Libya in the form of food and essential household items such as mattresses, blankets, kitchen sets, jerry cans, buckets, diapers and hygiene kits. ICRC teams also provides medical supplies to hospitals and health-care facilities, and support patients with physical disabilities.

  

For more information on humanitarian agency information and contact details, please see the following link: 4.2 Libya Humanitarian Agency Contact List