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Disasters, Conflicts and Migration

Natural Hazards

Types

Yes / No

Comments / Details

Drought

Yes

The number of poor growing seasons (NPGS) analysis was applied for measuring the drought incidents in the Kyrgyz Republic based on estimations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) between 2003 and 2015. Specifically, the long-term average of NDVI was estimated as a benchmark for last twelve years (2003-2015) and each year was compared against this benchmark to determine the number of years where the growing seasons were significantly below the benchmark. In 2014, Kyrgyzstan experienced a long period (May - September) meteorological drought caused by significant shortages in precipitation and a fairly high temperature.

Earthquakes

Yes

Low intensity earthquakes are common in the Republic as it is located in an active seismic zone. The last big earthquake was in August 1992, affecting approximately 146,900 people.

The strongest earthquake in Kyrgyzstan happened on 08/19/1992 in the Toluk region with a magnitude of 7.5 on the Richter scale which resulted in 75 deaths.

A series of earthquakes struck Osh oblast (province) of the Kyrgyz Republic from 3 to 5 May 2017, causing significant infrastructure damage. A M 5.9 earthquake (3 May 2017) and a M5.8 earthquake (5 May 2017) with aftershocks in Tajikistan caused extensive damage in Kyrgyzstan across the border. The earthquake intensity was from 4 to 6 MMI in Chon-Alai district, Osh province, Kyrgyzstan.

The preliminary results of MoES and local committees damage assessment indicate that the earthquakes affected over 1,022 families in Chon-Alai district. 19 earthquakes were registered from 2012-2019, with no injuries or fatalities.

Epidemics

No

N/A

Extreme Temperatures

Yes

In 2007-2008, Kyrgyzstan suffered its worst winter in 40 years, with major parts of the country facing power blackouts and food shortages.

Flooding

Yes

Mudflows are mostly experienced in the southern and western parts of the country. All districts in Batken province, Alay, Nookat and Kara-Suu districts in Osh province and Aksy, Nooken, Toktogul, Bazar-Korgon, Suzak and Ala-Buka districts in Jalal-Abad are affected by mudflows.

During 2012-2019, 588 floods were recorded which resulted to 18 casualties and a drastic destruction of buildings and roads.  

Insect Infestation

No

N/A

Mudslides

Yes

Landslides are most common in March and April. In April 1994 a landslide killed 111 people and affected 58,500 individuals.

From 2012 to 2019 129 mudslides were recorded, damaging more than 100 houses and killed 42 persons.

Volcanic Eruptions

No

N/A

High Waves / Surges

No

N/A

Wildfires

No

N/A

High Winds

Yes

During 2012-2018 only 4 cases was recorded with no injury and harm to economy.  

Other Comments

None

Man-Made Issues

Civil Strife

Yes

In 2005, 2010, and 2020 saw 3 revolutions to oust the government, and in there was 2010 ethnic conflict in the southern regions of the country. Regular minor civil strife are registered in the country. Apart from revolutions, small size peaceful rallies take place in capital and other locations of the country where population raise their voices against social problems, corruption in government system, ineffective use of natural resources, unfair decision in judicial system, unresolved issues with passage of goods at the border check points, etc. 

International Conflict

Yes

From 2010 to 2013 along the Kyrghyz – Uzbek border and enclaves, there were  17 fatalities. A series of armed conflict happened in Kyrgyz–Tajikistan border (close to Vorkukh enclave) during 2019 with several fatalities.

Internally Displaced Persons

No

N/A

Refugees Present

No

In 2019, Kyrgyzstan became the first country to end statelessness on its territory through the grant of nationality.

Landmines / UXO Present

Yes

2005-2013 6 cases registered in Batken Oblast

Other Comments

Yes

The Kyrgyz Republic has been ranked as the third most vulnerable country (after Tajikistan and Albania) to climate change among 28 Central Asia and Eastern Europe countries.

For more detailed database on disasters by country, please see the Centre for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters:

http://www.emdat.be/country-profile

Calamities and Seasonal Affects

Seasonal Effects on Transport

Transport

Comments

From (month) to (month)

Primary Road Transport

Severe winter conditions can affect the road between Osh and Bishkek. Landslides in spring months can also affect road transport. Occasional closure is common during winter and spring months.

Spring run-off and heavy rains can result in landslides that are most common from April – June. 

From October to April

Secondary Road Transport

Winter conditions on secondary roads can result in difficult travel, with snow, ice and fog common on high passes. Landslides in spring can also affect road transport

Spring run-off and heavy rains can result in landslides that are most common from April – June. 

From October to April

Rail Transport

Country does not have its own rail net. In the North, it is connected to Kazakhstan and in the South to Uzbekistan and its dependent neighbouring countries.

N/A

Air Transport

In general, country do not have any problems with air transport. Only some delay due to weather condition.


Waterway Transport

N/A



During winter, there can be heavy snowfalls from October through to April. This can affect movement on all roads, though the road from Bishkek to Osh is maintained, the closures are normally less than one or two days. High alpine passes are subject to avalanches, heavy snow falls and winter conditions.


Seasonal Effects on Storage and Handling

Activity

Comments

Period

Storage

Insufficient storage facilities at rural areas during the harvest seasons.

May to October

Handling

Insufficient labour during the migration period

April to November

Other

N/A



Capacity and Contacts for In-Country Emergency Response

The Ministry of Emergency Situations has traditionally been the body that coordinates disaster response and acts as the Secretariat for the Inter-Ministerial Commission for Elimination of Natural Disasters and their aftermath. They are responsible for the transportation of state and bilateral humanitarian assistance to regional government distribution points as well as monitoring the distribution of aid in affected areas. They are also able to provide security for the transportation of humanitarian cargo.

In addition to national level institutions, humanitarian assistance is also coordinated with regional and local government, both of which are also actively involved in distribution of humanitarian goods. Kyrgyzstan is divided into seven Provinces (Oblasts), with two cities (Bishkek and Osh) which are directly subordinate to national government.

The Ministry of Emergency Situations maintain emergency warehouses with contingency stocks in the southern city of Osh, located not far from WFP warehouse in Osh (1.5 km away).

Overall Management and Coordination Arrangements

National System

National System of Civil Protection (NSCP)

The NSCP is a national system that protects the population and territories in emergency situations in peace and wartime. Resources and management bodies of state agencies, local municipalities, NGOs and voluntary organisations are elements of the System.

NSCP consists of departmental and territorial subsystems created at the national, regional, local and object levels. Coordination bodies and permanent management boards, daily management structures, manpower and means, financial reserves and resources, and warning and communication systems are created at each NSCP level.


Inter-Ministerial Commission of Civil Protection (IMCCP)

The IMCCP is the coordinating body of the NSCP at the national level. The Prime Minister acts as the head of IMCCP and the Minister of Emergencies as the first deputy. IMCCP members include Inter-Agency Commission (IAC) members, Ministers, heads of government agencies, and heads of regional administrations and cities.  The main IMCCP tasks are:

  • To lead the implementation of the unified national policy in the sphere of civil protection;
  • To coordinate civil protection activities of the ministries, state committees, administrative agencies, local administrations, local authorities, international organizations and NGOs.

The departmental subsystem of NSCP includes management structures, manpower and means of national executive power bodies, regardless of ownership types. Eleven National Civil Protection Services were created in the Kyrgyz Republic based on the relevant functions of ministries and agencies.  These services are:

  1. Service for maintenance of public order (Ministry of Interior Affairs).
  2. Medical service (Ministry of Health).
  3. Transportation service (Ministry of Transport and Communication).
  4. Service for the protection of animals and plants (Ministry of Agriculture).
  5. Water protection service (State Committee for Water Industry and Melioration).
  6. Logistics support service (State Fund of Material Reserves under the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic).
  7. Service for energy supply and blackout (Ministry of Energy, energy distribution companies).
  8. Warning/notification service (State Communications Agency under the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic).
  9. Fire-fighting service (Fire Safety Agency under Ministry of Emergency Situations).
  10. Engineering service (State Architecture and Construction Agency under the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic).
  11. Utility and technical service (Kyrgyzstan Union on Housing).

The territorial subsystem of NSCP includes management structures, manpower, and means of local state administrations, local self-government bodies, local branches of the authorized state body for emergencies, and other executive authorities.

Appropriate civil protection services are created based on relevant regional and city branches of ministries and government agencies. Civil Protection Units are created based on the corresponding objects, regardless of their ownership.

The Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Kyrgyz Republic (MoES) is the main working body of NSCP. As an authorized state body with executive powers, MoES unifies state policy in the fields of civil protection, fire and radiation safety, and the safety of people in water bodies and hydrometeorology.

MoES operates in collaboration with other executive bodies, territorial government bodies, local authorities, international and non-governmental organizations, directly and through subordinate bodies. MoES is responsible for organizational and technical support of IMCCP. The main objectives of MoES are:

  • Forecasting of natural and man-made hazards and planning civil protection measures;
  • Warning and implementing preventative measures against peace and war time emergencies; and
  • Search, rescue, early recovery and other urgent operations, elimination of emergency consequences, and impact assessment.

In June 2017, the Kyrgyz Republic has adopted the Law on International Disaster Relief. This Law sets roles and responsibilities to all stakeholders for simplified access and receipt of international humanitarian assistance in case of large-scale emergencies, complementing the Government’s capacity, to address the needs of affected population. Currently, the Government bodies in close coordination and support from the in-country humanitarian community is working to develop bylaws that will define clear procedures for the Government bodies to facilitate rapid receipt of international humanitarian assistance.


National System of Civil Protection of the Kyrgyz Republic

For more information on government contact details, please see the following link: 4.1 Government Contact List.

Humanitarian Community 

Government and stakeholder coordination systems

A Disaster Response Coordination Unit (DRCU) was established in order to enhance cooperation and coordination in disaster risk reduction, response, and recovery from emergencies between the government and its humanitarian partners. The DRCU is managed by a steering committee comprised of representatives from the donor community, NGOs, Red Crescent and the UN agencies. Their responsibility is to represent the interests and coordinate the work of the respective organizations in disaster preparedness, response and recovery. At central level, the DRCU is subdivided into sectorial coordination groups, each headed by a sector lead. Seven sector groups have been established under the DRCU to improve sector-specific coordination of disaster preparedness and response.  The sector groups have a defined membership of UN organizations and partners and is based on the global cluster system. The sector groups include: Education and Child Protection (led by UNICEF); Water and Sanitation (UNICEF); Health (WHO); Emergency Shelter and Camp Management (Red Crescent Society of Kyrgyzstan); Food Security (WFP/FAO); Early Recovery (UNDP); and Protection (OHCHR).

Two Rapid Emergency Assessment and Coordination Teams (REACTs) have been established in the north and south of the country to provide joint assessments of humanitarian needs during emergencies.  The teams, made up of staff of UN organizations, the Red Crescent Society, and other international and local NGOs, have been equipped with essential equipment (including laptop computers, satellite telephones, etc.) and vehicles by their agencies, and have been trained with the support of OCHA’s regional office.

The DRCU Secretariat was set up to facilitate establishment of the disaster response coordination mechanism and to provide on-going support to the DRCU, sector groups and sector lead agencies, and REACT teams.

For more information on humanitarian agency contact details, please see 4.2 Humanitarian Agency Contact List.