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Disasters, Conflicts and Migration

Disasters, Conflicts and Migration

Natural Disasters

Yes/No

Comments / Details

Drought

Yes

Diminished rainfall and restricted releases of water from upstream reservoirs along Tigris and Euphrates caused extensive harm to Iraq’s irrigated grain crops in recent years. Drought risk assessments result indicates that the northwest portion of the country is facing high drought risk. It also caused desertification (sources available here and here).

Earthquakes

Yes

The territory of Iraq is not directly located on a dense cluster of recent earthquake epicentres; but the geo-dynamic configurations show a medium to high seismic risk. This will be coupled with the increasing vulnerability of the major highly populated cities (source available here)

Epidemics

Yes

More information available at WHO/EMRO

Extreme Temperatures

No


Flooding

No

Cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, can cause extensive flash and riverine flooding in Central and Southern Iraq. Only in March 1988, after this no as such flooding mentioned.

Insect Infestation

No


Mudslides

No


Volcanic Eruptions

No


High Waves / Surges

No


Wildfires

No


High Winds

No


Man-Made Issues 

Civil Strife

Yes

Due to disputed area between Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and Iraqi Governmental Forces in the country. Political tension between Federal Iraq and KR-I escalates from time to time. The referendum in September 2017 caused significant tension. Federal Iraq imposed sanctions on KRI that resulted in closure of all airports in KRI, as well the borders except Ibrahim Khalil.

International Conflict

No


Internally Displaced Persons

Yes

3,002,986 IDPs; 3,904,350 IDP returnees; (UNHCR, July 2018)

Refugees Present

Yes

Syrian Refugees: 251,157; Non-Syrian Refugees: 44,265; Stateless Refugees: 47,630 (UNHCR July 2018). For more detailed information on refugees and IDPs in country, please visit UNHCR - Refugees (Iraq) 

Landmines / UXO Present

Yes

Iraq-Iran border; Turkey-Iraq border - possibilities of UXO; areas of current conflict.

For more detailed database on disasters by country, please see the Centre for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters (OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database): Centre for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters - Iraq  

Calamities and Seasonal Affects

Seasonal Affects on Transport

Transport

Comments

Period

Primary Road Transport

No

 N/A

Secondary Road Transport

No

 N/A

Rail Transport

No

 N/A

Air Transport

 yes

During election all airport transport was suspended

Waterway Transport

No

 N/A

The Iraq climate, even though can reach very high temperatures in summer and below zero C in winter, with some snow particularly on the northern part, does not affect transport. Minimal difficulties in secondary road transport during snow days.


Seasonal Affects on Storage and Handling

Activity

Comments

Period

Storage

Summer month’s high temperatures might affect storage by deteriorating non-heat resistant and perishable goods.

June – September

Handling

N/A 

 N/A

Capacity and Contacts for In-Country Emergency Response

As of July 2018, 3,002,986 people were displaced and a total of 8,700,000 people were in need of humanitarian assistance, as per OCHA.

Since 2017, humanitarian agencies and their partners have had access to most of the governorates that previously saw significant access restrictions, including Anbar, Ninewa, Salah Al Din governorates and Mosul.

Humanitarian Community

  • There are  102 humanitarian actors engaged in the humanitarian relief effort in Iraq.
  • The main actors are UNHCR, IOM, UNICEF, WFP, WHO, UNDP, UN-HABITAT, UNFPA and their implementing partners, which are INGO and NGO.
  • The Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies also plays a major role.
  • There are 70 non-governmental organisations (NGOs) who are also active in the country. 
  • OCHA is coordinating humanitarian operations with representation at the national and regional level. 

On-going programs:

Top 5 governorates with on-going activities are located in Northern and Western Regions of Iraq, concentrating mainly on CCCM, Food, Wash, Health and Protection programs.

Main activities of the on-going operation are:

  • Provide to displaced persons/host communities and local populations in conflict-affected areas with life-saving protection and humanitarian assistance in the form of emergency shelter, non-food items (NFIs), water and hygiene kits, health care, nutrition, agricultural inputs and food security. Important areas of focus are: protection, health, water & Sanitation, food security, emergency livelihood and education. 
  • Assess and closely monitor protection needs of displaced and conflict-affected persons in order to ensure that adequate services and support are provided.
  • Ensure access to education, legal services and psychosocial support for displaced persons and conflict-affected populations, especially the most vulnerable.