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Disasters, Conflicts and Migration

Natural Hazards

Type

Occurs

Comments / Details

Drought

Yes

During dry season from Dec to Apr

Earthquakes

N/A

Epidemics*

Yes

Malaria (Objective: elimination by 2030), Influenza, Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Chikungunya (2020 Outbreak). Dengue outbreaks occur each rainy season (May–October)

Extreme Temperatures

N/A

Flooding

Yes

During monsoon from May to Nov

Insect Infestation

N/A

Mudslides

N/A

Volcanic Eruptions

N/A

High Waves / Surges

N/A

Wildfires

N/A

High Winds

Yes

June to August and Nov to March

Other Comments

Cambodia is highly vulnerable to hydro-meteorological hazards, including flash floods, riverine floods and tropical cyclones/storms, with regular monsoon flooding in the Mekong and Tonle Sap basin with localised increasing droughts in the plains. The changing climactic pattern brings enormous implications for agriculture and fisheries, with the potential to threaten food and water security. Riverbank and constructions collapses, fires as well as epidemics are also disasters threats.

Man-Made Issues

Civil Strife

Yes

Likely during past election years.

International Conflict

Yes

Last happened in 2010/11 due to boundaries dispute with Thailand. Civil war ended in 1993.

Internally Displaced Persons

Yes

Can occur during severe floods. Return migrants from Thailand following Covid-19 outbreak

Refugees Present

No

Happened during the civil war until 1993.

Landmines / UXO Present

Yes

Cambodia has one of largest landmine and explosive remnants of war (ERW) contaminations in the world (Objective: Clear EWR by 2030*). Mainly located in north-eastern rural areas and a high concern at flood’s time.

Other Comments

The Kingdom is looking closely at China and Laos' extensive upstream dam construction and member of the Mekong River Commission (MRC).

For a more detailed database on disasters by country, please see the Centre for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters Country Profile

Seasonal Effects on Logistics Capacities

Seasonal Effects on Transport

Transport Type

Time Frame

Comments / Details

Primary Road Transport

May to Nov

There are normally no major consequences to primary road transport, except under heavy rainfall or river flooding some part of the main roads could be cut by water.

Secondary Road Transport

May to Nov

There are more effects to Secondary road transport, although infrastructure conditions have much improved.

Rail Transport

-

Rail transport is newly developed in Cambodia. There have been no noticeable seasonal effects although the railway operator is looking at it closely and taking necessary preventive measures to prevent potential disruption due to flood.

Air Transport

May to Nov

Limited seasonal effects, although heavy rains and strong winds can delay flights.

Waterway Transport

Jan to May

In rainy season there is no major problem with boat transport, but in the dry season some part of the water line cannot be reached due to shallow river levels.

Cambodia's climate, like that of the rest of Southeast Asia, is dominated by monsoons, which are known as tropical wet and dry because of the distinctly marked seasonal differences.

Cambodia has a temperature range from 21 to 35 °C (69.8 to 95.0 °F) and experiences tropical monsoons. Southwest monsoons blow inland bringing moisture-laden winds from the Gulf of Thailand and Indian Ocean from May to October. The northeast monsoon ushers in the dry season, which lasts from November to April. The country experiences the heaviest precipitation in October with the driest period occurring in February.

In 2020, there has been major disruption in transport network during the rainy seasons, exceptional floods and flash floods disrupted the normal traffic circulation for several hours up to few days.

 

Seasonal Effects on Storage and Handling

Activity Type

Time Frame

Comments / Details

Storage

Jan to Dec

No seasonal effects on storage.

Handling

Jan to Dec

In Provinces, handling remain mainly done by manpower and currently strongly affected by migration to neighbouring countries for work.

Other

N/A

Forklift may not always be available and truck cranes are used instead.

 

Capacity and Contacts for In-Country Emergency Response

Government

The 2015 Disaster Management law outlines the Government’s response to emergencies, with National Committee for Disaster Management (http://www.ncdm.gov.kh) and its subnational committees responsible for coordination at the national and subnational levels respectively.

In 2020, the Circular No. 02 [Khmer Abbreviation] dated 14 January 2020, set the establishment of mechanism for disaster management in ministries and institutions of the Royal Government of Cambodia and the Letter No. 014 [Khmer Abbreviation] dated 17 January 2020, set the establishment of Disaster Management Secretariat of the NCDM in ministries and institutions.

In support of the government, the Cambodian Red Cross provides the first assistance and draw on a wide network of pre-positioned resources and subnational presence. (http://www.redcross.org.kh)

For more information on government contact details, please see the following link: 4.1 Government Contact List.

Humanitarian Community

The Humanitarian Response Forum (HRF), created in 2011, is the coordination mechanism used by the humanitarian community to address emergency preparedness and responses, information management and resource mapping in an efficient and coordinated approach and close collaboration with NCDM. The HRF is currently co-chaired by WFP and Dan Church Aid.

It is organised in 6 sectors: Food Security and Nutrition, Water Sanitation and Hygiene, Shelter, Health, Education, Protection. The creation of 2 working group “Cash” and “Logistics” are in discussion among members at the end of 2020.

(https://www.humanitarianresponse.info/operations/cambodia)

For more information on humanitarian agencies, please see the following link: 4.2 Humanitarian Agency Contact List.

 


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