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Disaster Overview

The combination of the high number of disaster events, an increasing human vulnerability resulting from demographic pressure, poverty, social inequality, and the apprehended climate changes indicate that Bangladesh is, permanently, at high risk to large scale disasters with consequent impact on human health and survival. Substantial reduction of risks related to natural and human induced disasters through enhanced capacity to effectively manage emergencies are some of the priority needs of the country.

The geographical location and topographical features of Bangladesh have exposed the country to almost all kinds of natural hazards and human induced disasters. The monsoon weather brings in tornados and cyclones affecting the entire country with high tidal upsurges at the coastal belts during March-June and October-December, and due to heavy rainfall in the country as well as in the northern Indian states of Assam and Maghalaya, floods occur almost every year affecting almost two thirds of the country during the months of July to October. Although significant earthquakes or tsunamis have not taken place in Bangladesh for over 100 years, a considerable part of the country falls under  an earthquake zone and mild tremors continues to occur in the southern parts of the country without any significant casualties or life loss, so far, but the country remains at threat of moderate to major earthquakes along with disasters like tsunami.

Major Hazards of Bangladesh

A range of factors such as over population, social inequality, escalated environmental degradation and rapid urbanization is considerably increasing the impact of disasters on human health and survival in the country demanding a more complex nature of emergency response in recent times. Moreover, the economic burden of poverty and demographic pressures are making a vast majority of people more vulnerable by forcing them to migrate to high risk areas such as flood plains and far flung islands which are normally not suitable for human settlement. The arsenic contamination of drinking water is now gradually evolving as a new public health emergency of a scale never witnessed before. At the same time, the country is at risk of being inundated, at-least ten percent of its land mass with in the first half of this century due to rising sea levels as a result of climate change.

Climate change adds a new dimension to community risk and vulnerability. Although the magnitude of these changes may appear to be small, they could substantially increase the frequency and intensity of existing climatic events (floods, droughts, cyclones, etc.). Current indications are that not only flood and cyclones will become more severe, they will also start to occur outside of their “established seasons”. Events, such as drought, may not have previously occurred in some areas and may now be experienced.

Natural Disasters

Flood including flash flood, cyclone & tidal surge, tornado, river erosion, landslides, earthquake, drought, etc. are some of the major natural disasters that are experienced in Bangladesh. Following are the details of such disasters:

Natural Disasters

Yes/No

Comments / Details

Drought

Yes

Every five years, Bangladesh is affected by major country-wide droughts. However, local droughts occur regularly and affect crop production. The agricultural drought, linked to soil moisture scarcity, occurs at different stages of crop growth, development and reproduction. Monsoon failure often brings famine to the affected regions and as a result crop production reduces drastically. Northwestern regions of Bangladesh are particularly exposed to droughts.

A strong drought can cause greater than 40% damage to aus crop. During the kharif (monsoon) season, it causes significant destruction to the aman crop in approximately 2.32 million hectare (ha) every year. In the rabi season, about 1.2 million ha of agricultural land face droughts of different magnitudes. Apart from the agricultural loss, droughts have important effect on livestock population, land degradation, health and employment. Between 1960 and 1991, drought events occurred 19 times in Bangladesh. Very strong droughts hit the country in 1961, 1975, 1981, 1982, 1984, 1989, 1994, and 2000. Past droughts have naturally affected about 53% of the population and 47% of the country. The associated crop production decline, lower employment opportunities and losses of assets contributed to raise household food insecurity. Droughts cause major problem in household health because its subsequent impact of decreasing food consumption leads to significant increases in illnesses. It also causes an increase in chronic energy deficiency among the agricultural workers.

Drought affects not only seasonal crops, but also fruit-bearing trees, forestry and the environment as a whole. Moreover, the crop environment during the monsoon season is not favorable for achieving full potential yields because of uneven distribution of rainfall, flooding, etc.

To combat drought, it is essential for Bangladesh to utilize its water resources, both surface and groundwater. However, Bangladesh has increasingly used her groundwater resources to such an extent that the depletion of groundwater resources as well as arsenic contamination is occurring at alarming rate in the ground water reservoirs due to over and unplanned withdrawal.

Basically, there are three types of droughts in Bangladesh:

  • Permanent drought characterizes regions with the driest climate, having sparse vegetation that is adapted to aridity. Agriculture cannot be practiced without irrigation.
  • Seasonal drought occurs due to abnormal rainfall shortage in places where there are well defined annual rainy and dry seasons.
  • Unpredictable drought involves an abnormal rainfall failure, mostly in localized areas of humid and sub-humid climates.

Drought conditions due to deficiency in rainfall affect different parts of Bangladesh mostly during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods. Drought conditions never affect the entire country and total population in any drought year.

Earthquakes

Yes

Every year the country experiences natural disasters like cyclones, floods, droughts, earthquakes, riverbank erosions etc. But among those, Bangladesh is more threatened by earthquakes and studies also corroborate this. Bangladesh is surrounded mostly by India and to a lesser extent by Myanmar and lies where three tectonic plates-Eurasia, India, and Burma meet making it one of the most tectonically active regions in the world. In the past 200 years, Bangladesh has experienced many devastating as well as mild earthquakes. After the independence in 1971, Bangladesh has been shaken up by more than 250 earthquakes and some of those were greater than 6.0 magnitude. Studies have also shown the possibilities of losses of life. The occurrence of an earthquake in an earthquake prone region can never be prevented and there is no prior prediction to the earthquake as well but by studying critically, issue warning, implementing the management techniques of settlements for both pre-disaster preparedness and post-disaster management, we can minimize the losses of lives and properties. The Government of Bangladesh is aware of this risk and in the recent years, many awareness growing campaigns have been organized.

In the recent past, a number of tremors of moderate to severe intensity had already taken place in and around Bangladesh. Some are seen from the table below (magnitude 6 and above):

Date

Historical Name

Magnitude

10th January 1869

Cachar earthquake

7.39

14th July 1885

Bengal Earthquake

7

10th January 1889

Meghalaya Earthquake

7.5

12th June 1897

Great Indian Earthquake

8

18th July 1918

The Srimangal Earthquake

7.6

9th September 1923

Meghalaya Earthquake

7.1

3rd July 1930

The Dubri Earthquake

7.1

15th August 1950

The Assam Earthquake

8.7

11th August 2009

The Bay of Bengal Earthquake

7.5

24th August 2016

The Myanmar Earthquake

6.8


Earthquake emergency preparedness plans are far beyond the ones for cyclones and floods. Nevertheless, awareness about the danger of major earthquakes is currently ongoing at all levels, including government and the humanitarian community, resulting in various contingency planning efforts and simulations exercises. 

Tsunamis

Yes

Because of their destructiveness, tsunamis have important impacts on the human, social, and economic sectors of societies. The last major Pacific-wide tsunami occurred in 1960. Many other local and regional destructive tsunamis have occurred with more localized effects.

Before the Asia Tsunami 2004, a few Bangladeshis ever thought that Bangladesh was vulnerable to tsunami hazards. However, the 2004 Asia Tsunami raised the question why Bangladesh was not hit by the Tsunami. Bangladeshi scientists put together the following reasons:

  • Distance from the epicenter
  • Long continental shelf (about 200 km) at the front of Ganges- Brahmaputra active Delta
  • System layout of plates
  • Thick sedimentation in Bengal fan
  • High density of seawater in Bay of Bengal around / along the coast (suspended load)
  • Anti-clockwise oceanic current at Bay of Bengal (winter season)

Considering the state of tsunami vulnerability and potential seismic sources, the geological survey of Bangladesh has divided the Bangladesh coastal belt into three zones:

  • Tsunami Vulnerable Zone- I (Chattogram-Teknaf coastline): Most vulnerable. The intra-deltaic coastline is very close to the tectonic interface of Indian and Burmese plates. The active Andaman-Nicobar fault system is often capable of generating tsunami waves.
  • Tsunami Vulnerable Zone- II (Sundarban-Barisal coastline): Moderately vulnerable. This old deltaic belt is extremely vulnerable to local tsunamis due to presence of the Swatch of No Ground
  • Tsunami Vulnerable Zone- III (Barisal-Sandwip estuarine coastline): Low vulnerability.

The estuarine coastal belt considered to be less vulnerable due to presence of numerous islets and shoals in the upper regime of the continental shelf.

Bangladesh needs detailed study to scientifically assess the Tsunami vulnerability (this is done for the Banda Aceh area). Bangladesh also needs to develop a Tsunami early warning system and mass awareness of Tsunami threat at the coastal areas.

Epidemics

Yes

Every year new infectious diseases are included as emerging diseases and also some considered as eradicated or controlled may start to reappear.

The list of emerging and reemerging diseases includes pandemic influenza, avian influenza, Nipah virus, HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis, poliomyelitis, Dengue, Kala azar, enteric fever, anthrax, leptospirosis, diarrhea, ARI, etc.

Malaria is endemic in 13 districts of the Northern and Eastern parts of the country.

Kala-azar has been prevailing for centuries as an endemic disease. Control measures for malaria have a significant impact on Kala-azar too. The outbreak began in 2000. Case fatality rates are decreasing.

Filariasis is endemic in the whole country, particularly in the North. It is estimated that 70 million people are at risk while 10 million live with clinical deformity and another 10 million with micro flummeries.

Diarrhea is highly present in the whole country with thousands of deaths yearly.

HIV/AIDS prevalence remains low, with rates between 0,1% (general population) and 1% (populations at risk) = 16.000 cases approx.

Extreme temperatures

Yes

During the winter season, cold weather causes suffering among the elderly, homeless, young children and the vulnerable poor. The northern part of the country is particularly affected.

Climate changes consequences tend to demonstrate an increased occurrence of cold waves.

Floods

Yes

Bangladesh is prone to flooding due to its location on the Ganges Delta and the many distributaries flowing into the Bay of Bengal. Coastal flooding, combined with the bursting of riverbanks is common, and severely affects the landscape and society of Bangladesh. 80% of Bangladesh is floodplain and it has an extensive sea coastline, rendering the nation very much at risk of periodic widespread damage. Whilst more permanent defenses, strengthened with reinforced concrete, are being built, many embankments are composed purely of soil and turf and made by local farmers. Flooding normally occurs during the monsoon season from June to September. The convectional rainfall of the monsoon is added to by relief rainfall caused by the Himalayas. Meltwater from the Himalayas is also a significant input.

Floods are annual phenomena, with the most severe occurring during the months of July and August.

Regular river floods affect 20% of the country, increasing up to 68% in extreme years. The floods of 1988, 1998, 2004 and 2007 were particularly catastrophic, resulting in large-scale destruction and loss of lives.

Approximately 37%, 43%, 52% and 68% of the country is inundated with floods of return periods of 10, 20, 50 and 100 years respectively (MPO, 1986). Four types of flooding occur in Bangladesh.

  • Flash floods caused by overflowing of hilly rivers in eastern and northern Bangladesh (in April-May and September-November).
  • Rain floods caused by drainage congestion and heavy rains.
  • Monsoon floods caused by major rivers usually in the monsoon (during June-September).
  • Coastal floods caused by storm surges.

Each year in Bangladesh about 26,000 square kilometers (around 18% of the country) is flooded, killing over 5,000 people and destroying more than seven million homes. During severe floods the affected area may exceed 75% of the country, as was seen in 1998. This volume is 95% of the total annual inflow. By comparison, only about 187 trillion l (1.87×1011 m3; 6.6×1012 cu ft) of streamflow is generated by rainfall inside the country during the same period.

Floods continue to be major hazards in Bangladesh. To mitigate the impacts of floods, the government has been developing and implementing various measures to better equip the country to deal with floods. The Ministry of Water Resources (MoWR) is leading the country on flood mitigation initiatives.

Insect infestations

Yes

Due to climatic conditions and insufficient or inadequate cultivation and storage conditions, insect infestation regularly contaminate agricultural or fisheries productions.

Riverbank erosion / slides

Yes

Riverbank erosion is an ongoing permanent disaster. As there is no specific indicator to measure the extent of damage, the extent of damage caused by river erosion in most cases is only based on received reports/information. Needless to say, whatever the difference in ascertaining, the extent of damage river erosion causes huge loss of property throughout the year. According to “World Disaster Report 2001” published by IFRCS every year about 1,000,000 people are affected by river erosion and 10,000-hectare cultivable lands are banished in river. Among these only a few affected people are able to find new shelters while others become homeless for uncertain periods.

River erosion in Bangladesh is no less dangerous than other sudden and devastating calamities. Though losses are slow and gradual, they are more destructive and far-reaching than other sudden and devastating calamities. The effects of river erosion are long-term. It takes a few decades to make up the losses, which a family has incurred by river erosion.

Rivers in Bangladesh are morphologically highly dynamic. The main rivers are braided, and form islands or chars between the braiding channels. These chars, of which many are inhabited, "move with the flow" and are extremely sensitive to changes in the river conditions. Erosion processes are highly unpredictable, and not compensated by accretion. These processes also have dramatic consequences in the lives of people living in those areas. A study concluded in 1991 reported that: out of the 462 administrative units in the country, 100 were subject to some form of riverbank erosion, of which 35 were serious, and affected about 1 million people on a yearly basis. The erosion prone zones of Bangladesh are shown in the Figure below. Erosion of total area and settlement is higher along the left bank than that of the right bank.

River erosion is a major challenge to the people in 51 out of 64 districts in the country, representing significant threat to the lives and livelihoods of vast number of populations. The people who are rich in the morning become poor in the evening because of river erosion. Long-term impact of river erosion is catastrophic for the families and the country as most of the victims migrate to urban areas mainly to Dhaka for shelter. Most of the slum dwellers in the capital city and other cities and towns are river affected people. Those who do not come to Dhaka lead a miserable life on dams, roads, deserted houses or under open sky.

Landslides


Yes

In the past, landslide was not considered a major hazard in Bangladesh. However, recently landslide has emerged as a major hazard, particularly after the Chattogram Landslide 2007 that killed more than 120 people.

Landslides are a complex-disaster phenomenon that can be caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, heavy rainfall (typhoons, hurricanes), sustained rainfall, heavy snowmelt, unregulated anthropogenic developments, mining, and others. In Bangladesh, landslides are mostly triggered by heavy rainfall. However, underlying causes of landslide include deforestation, hill cutting, unregulated development work, etc. Moreover, poverty and landlessness force poor people to live in the risky hillslopes.

Volcanoes

No


Cyclones/ Wave/Surge

Yes

Tropical cyclones from the Bay of Bengal accompanied by storm surges are one of the major disasters in Bangladesh. The country is one of the worst sufferers of all cyclonic casualties in the world. The high number of casualties is due to the fact that cyclones are always associated with storm surges. Storm surge height in excess of 9m is not uncommon in this region. The 1970 cyclone is the deadliest cyclone that has hit Bangladesh coastline. With a wind-speed of about 224 km per hour and associated storm surge of 6.1 to 9.11m, it was responsible for deaths of about 300 to 500,000 people.

Extreme cyclone events are now occurring more frequently in Bangladesh. Bangladesh experienced 52 severe cyclones from 1960 to 2010 where, the approximate percentage of storm surge impact is 40%, the largest in the world. Severe cyclones in 1970 and 1991 caused loss of 300,000 and 200,000 lives. It is reported that 210,000, 36,000, and 3500 tons of boro rice, aus rice and other food crops (e.g. potatoes and vegetables) were totally destroyed by 1991 cyclone. The storm surge killed large numbers of livestock and caused loss of 100% of freshwater fish. More recently, the super cyclonic storm SIDR (2007) and AILA (2009) affected 10,000 and 300,000 people, respectively. Apart from these, cyclones NARGIS (2008) and MOHASEN (2013) are also mentionable. The crop production in the coastal regions of Bangladesh is most vulnerable by cyclones while, sea level rise by 2050 will inundate 17.7% of southern coastal areas. Tropical cyclones could become more frequent with more strength under recent climate change conditions. In this research, a new dimension of extreme weather assessment is done combining GCM and GIS technology and using tropospheric instability indices. The thermodynamic environment, vertical instability characteristics of severe cyclones are indispensable to cope with climate change conditions, and for planning, disaster management, and to reduce the risk of food insufficiency. Some of the major cyclones that affected Bangladesh are as follows:


14–15 May 2007

Cyclone Akash

struck about 115 km south of Chattogram with wind speeds up to 120 km/hour. 14 people were killed, and damages amounted to US$982 million.

15 November 2007

Cyclone Sidr

with wind speeds up to 260 km/hour, made landfall on southern Bangladesh, causing over 3,500 deaths and severe damage

26–27 October 2008

  Cyclone Rashmi

made landfall on the Bangladesh coast late on 26 October with wind speeds up to 85 km/hour, 15 people were killed, and thousands of homes were also damaged

19–21 April 2009

 Cyclone Bijli

attacked weakly in Bangladesh and no severe damages were recorded except some houses and crop fields losses

27–29 May 2009

Cyclone Aila

attacked offshore 15 districts of south-western part of Bangladesh with wind speeds up to 120 km/hour; about 150 persons killed, 2 lac houses and 3 lac acres of cultivated land and crops losses

16–17 May 2013

 Cyclone Viyaru

formerly known as Cyclonic Storm Mahasen, hit near Chattogram with wind speeds up to 85 km/hour. 17 people died, and nearly 1.3 million were affected across the country. Losses to crops exceeded US$5.14 million

29 July 2015

 Cyclone Komen

with wind speeds up to 75 km/hour, Komen made landfall near Chattogram. About 510,000 houses in the country were damaged or destroyed, and many residents lost their source of income as 667,221 acres (270,000 ha) of crop fields were damaged. The floods killed 132 people, of which at least 39 were directly related to Komen

21 May 2016

 Cyclone Roanu

made landfall near Chattogram killing 26 people in Bangladesh. It has wind speeds up to 100 km/hour. Around 40,000 homesteads and business houses were damaged. Food storage, seasonal crops were damaged. Livestock, including fish and shrimp firms were swept away

20 August 2016

Tropical Storm Dianmu

 affected Bangladesh, no damage or death were reported

29–31 May 2017

 Cyclone Mora

with wind speeds up to 110 km/hour, made landfall near Chattogram. A total of 500,000 people managed to move out of coastal areas before the storm made landfall on 31 May. But at least 20,000 houses were damaged in refugee camps. At least 20 people were reported to be killed across Bangladesh, mostly due to falling trees and drowning.

03-05 May 2019

Cyclone Fani

Coastal and riverine areas were most affected by the storm, with house collapses and the falling of trees being the most common cause of injury or death. A total 17 people were killed across 10 districts in Bangladesh.

Wild fires

No

Due to the important deforestation, the incidence of forest fires in Bangladesh is considered as insignificant. The teak forests of the Chattogram Hill Tracts (CHT) face regular fires set intentionally for cultivation purposes.

Tornado/Wind storm

Yes

There are severe local seasonal storms, popularly known as nor’westers (kalbaishakhi). Severe nor’westers are generally associated with tornadoes. Tornadoes are embedded within a mother thundercloud and moves along the direction of the squall of the mother storm. The frequency of devastating nor’westers usually reaches the maximum in April, while a few occur in May and in March. Nor’westers and tornadoes are more frequent in the afternoon. Nor’westers may occur in late February due to early withdrawal of winter from Bangladesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, and adjoining areas. The occasional occurrence of nor’westers in early June is due to the delay in the onset of the southwest monsoon over the region (Karmakar, 1989).

Wind speeds in nor’westers usually do not exceed 113-130 km/hr (70-80 miles/hr), although speeds exceeding 162 km/hr (100 miles/hr) have occurred. When the winds become whirling with funnel shaped clouds having a speed of several hundred kilometers or miles per hour, they are called tornados. Nor’westers bring the much-needed pre-monsoon rain. They can also cause a lot of havoc and destruction. Tornados are suddenly formed and are extremely localized in nature and of brief duration. Thus, it is very difficult to locate them or forecast their occurrence with the techniques available at present.

Arsenic Contamination

Yes

At present, arsenic contamination is considered to be a dangerous environmental threat and is identified as a public health emergency in Bangladesh. There is no specific treatment for chronic arenicolids other than ceasing further intake of arsenic contaminated water and raising awareness of the population about the problem.

The value (recommended limit) for arsenic in drinking water as per the guideline of the World Health Organization (WHO) is 10 mg/L while the national standard in most countries, including Bangladesh, is 50 mg/L. With varying levels of contamination from region to region, groundwater in 61 out of the 64 districts in Bangladesh is contaminated with arsenic.

According to a study conducted by the British Geological Survey and DPHE, Bangladesh, arsenic concentrations in the country range from less than 0.25 mg/L to more than 1600 mg/L. This study report estimates that out of the Bangladesh population, up to 57 million people drink water that has an arsenic concentration greater than the WHO guideline value and up to 35 million people consume water that has concentrations in excess of the Bangladesh standard. The waters in the southwest and southeast parts of Bangladesh are highly contaminated with arsenic (map below). Important government initiatives to mitigate risk to arsenic contamination include development of the National Policy for Arsenic Mitigation 2003 and the Implementation Plan for Arsenic Mitigation in Bangladesh.

Saline water intrusion

Yes

Saline water intrusion is mostly seasonal in Bangladesh; in winter months the saline front begins to penetrate inland, and the affected areas rise sharply from 10 % in the monsoon to over 40 % of the coastal belt in the dry season. Coastal districts such as SaBDThira, Khulna, Bagerhat, Barguna, Pataskala, and Barisal are victim of salinity intrusions. Agricultural production, fisheries, livestock, and mangrove forests are affected by higher salinity in the dry season. It is observed that dry flow trend has declined as a result of which sea flow (saline water) is traveling far inside the country resulting in contamination both in surface and ground waters. Movement of saline front in the monsoon season (June to September) is seen in this map.

Salinity data from Land Reclamation Program (LRP) and Meghna Estuary Study (MES) indicate an enormous seasonal effect due to the influence of huge freshwater discharge from the Lower Meghna River on the horizontal distribution of salinity in the estuary. This distribution is strongly influenced by the freshwater flow in the Lower Meghna River. Figures below present the movement of the salinity line during monsoon and dry season. High salinity both in monsoon and dry season in the southwest corner and along the Pussur-Sibsa system of the area is associated with the decreasing upstream freshwater flow as well as silting of major channels.

Movement of saline front in the dry season (November to May) is seen in the Map.

Lean Employment


 

There are apparently two lean seasons in Bangladesh in terms of employment opportunities for the rural area. Northern part of Bangladesh is relatively more affected due to these lean seasons. These seasons are generally March-April and September-October of the year. Earlier, this September-October was often known as “Monga Season”. During this period, agricultural activities are somewhat limited. However, over the years due to diversified agricultural activities and due to several social safety net programmes of Government, along with different activities sponsored by UN/INGO/NGO, the situation has improved.       


Human-induced/Biological/Technological

Road & river traffic accident, epidemics, fire, buildings collapse, gas field explosion, political conflicts, etc. are some of the major human made disasters:

Refugees in country

Yes

Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh are Rohingya people who have fled from Myanmar and are living in Bangladesh. An estimated 745,000 Rohingya—including more than 400,000 children—have fled into Cox’s Bazar, where many people found temporary shelter in refugee camps.

As of March 2019, over 909,000 stateless Rohingya refugees reside in Ukhiya and Teknaf Upazilas. The vast majority live in 34 extremely congested camps, including the largest single site, the Kutupalong-Balukhali Expansion Site, which is host to approximately 626,500 Rohingya refugees.

Social InstabilityYes

Social instability is frequent in Bangladesh due to conflicting political interest groups, including students’ unrest.

The Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) has observed some intenrnal conflicts for several years, which was followed by a Peace Accord signed between the Bangladesh Government and United People's Party of the Chittagong Hill Tracts on 2 December 1997. The accord allowed for the recognition of the rights of the peoples and tribes of CHT region and ended the decades-long insurgency between the Shanti Bahini and Government forces. There is a presence of large number of security forces in the CHT to maintain law and order situation. Sometimes special permission for the International/UN official are required to visit the CHT.

International conflict

No


Landmines casualties

No



Calamities and Seasonal Effects on Transportation

Transport Means

Comments

Primary Road Transport

Road transport may be affected during both industrial (garment, jute), agricultural (rice, jute, fruits) and fisheries (shrimps) peak seasons. In addition, during Eid holidays, particularly one week before the Eid, there is scarcity of transport capacity on the road. These vary from places to places and are only due to a temporary scarcity of transport means.

The monsoon season may also affect road transports temporarily and locally. During massive disasters, a scarcity of transport means is probable and is often faced.

Secondary Road Transport


Rail Transport

Rail transportation system remains normal except during any of the natural calamities and incidents. During Eid holidays rail transport becomes very vulnerable.

Air Transport

Air transportation is normal except in severe natural calamities.

Waterways Transport

In Bangladesh about two-thirds of the land is vulnerable to flooding. Most areas remain under water for two to five months a year. As a result, costs of development and maintenance of roads and railways are high. On the other hand, inland water transport has always been a natural and relatively cheaper means of transport. In certain areas, it is the only mode of transport. Including the country's unclassified routes, the total length of its waterway (700 rivers) is about 13,000 km. Of this, 8,433 km is navigable by larger vessels in the rainy season (5,968 km of which is classified for navigation) while in the dry season about 4,800 km is navigable (classified 3,865 km).


Capacities to Respond to Disasters/Emergencies

Coordination Mechanisms

The Department of Disaster Management (DDM), under the Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief (MoDMR) of the Government of Bangladesh has the responsibility for coordinating national disaster management efforts across all agencies. In January 1997 the Ministry issued the Standing Orders on Disaster (SODs) to guide and monitor disaster management activities in Bangladesh. These SODs were revised once in 2010 and again in 2019, which is awaiting to be published. Basically, 3 institutions are responsible for the coordination of disaster response in Bangladesh at the national level: The National Disaster Management Council (NDMC)- responsible for strategic decisions for disaster management; the Inter- Ministerial Disaster Management Committee (IMDMC)- responsible for coordination across ministries; and the National Disaster Management Advisory Committee- responsible for policy development and advice. The NDMC is the highest-level decision-making body for disaster management in Bangladesh. Coordination at District, Thana and Union levels will be done by the respective District, Thana and Union Disaster Management Committees. The Department of Disaster Management (DDM) will render all assistance to them by facilitating the process. A series of inter-related institutions, at both national and sub-national levels have been created to ensure effective planning and coordination of disaster risk reduction and emergency response management.

Following the 2015 Nepal Earthquake, the GoB decided to establish a National Emergency Operation Centre (NEOC) to respond effectively to the severe disastrous situations of the unanticipated event. In 2015, a National Emergency Operations Center (NEOC), also termed National Disaster Response Coordination Center (NDRRC), was established at the Secretariat of the MoDMR as a coordination mechanism for disaster response. Emergency operations centers can also be activated at the district levels for the management and coordination of the response through strategic deployment of staff to the field as well as coordination with various clusters and working groups. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MoFA) also coordinates any incoming humanitarian assistance. It coordinates requests for international assistance as directed by the government and NDMC. For further details pl click http://www.ddm.gov.bd/.

National Disaster Management Council (NDMC)

At the apex level, the National Disaster Management Council is established to provide policy guidance towards disaster risk reduction and emergency response management in Bangladesh. The Council is multi-sectoral and inter-disciplinary in nature, with public, private and civil society participation involving all concerned entities within a country including representation from the United Nations.


Membership of the NDMC (as per the revised SOD 2019)

1.        

Honorable Prime Minister

Chairperson

2.        

Minister, Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperatives

Member

3.        

Minister, Ministry of Agriculture

4.        

Minister, Ministry of Home Affairs

5.        

Minister, Ministry of Road Transport and Bridges

‘’

6.        

Minister, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

‘’

7.        

Minister, Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief (MoDMR)

8.        

Minister, Ministry of Water Resources

9.        

Minister, Ministry of Housing and Public Works

10.     

Minister, Ministry of Shipping

11.     

Minister, Ministry of Railways

12.     

Minister, Ministry of Science and Technology

13.     

Minister, Ministry of Food

14.     

Minister, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change

15.     

Chairman, National Disaster Management Advisory Committee

16.     

Chief of Army Staff

17.     

Chief of Naval Staff

18.     

Chief of Air Staff

‘’

19.     

Principal Secretary at Prime Minister’s Office

‘’

20.     

Principle Staff Officer, Armed Forces Division

21.     

Secretary, Economic Division

22.     

Secretary, Ministry of Water Resources

23.     

Secretary, Bangladesh Bridge Authority

24.     

Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture

25.     

Secretary, Bangladesh Local Government Division

26.     

Secretary, Health Services Division

27.     

Secretary, Medical Education and Family Welfare Division

28.     

Secretary, Public Security Division

29.     

Secretary, Security Services Division

30.     

Secretary, Ministry of Defence

31.     

Secretary, Secondary and Higher Education Division

‘’

32.     

Secretary, Technical and Madrasa Education Division

‘’

33.     

Secretary, Ministry of Primary and Mass Education

34.     

Secretary, Road Transport and Highways Division

35.     

Secretary, Railways Division

36.     

Secretary, Ministry of Shipping

37.     

Secretary, Information Ministry

38.     

Secretary, Disaster Management & Relief Division (DM&RD)

39.     

Secretary, Ministry of Food

40.     

Secretary, Ministry of Land

41.     

Secretary, Ministry of Housing and Public Works

42.     

Secretary, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock

43.     

Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forests

44.     

Bangladesh Police Head Quarters, Bangladesh Police

45.     

Director General, Department of Disaster Mangemet

46.     

Director General, Border Guards Bangladesh

47.     

Director General, Rapid Action Battalion

48.     

Director General, Bangladesh Ansar and Village Defense Party

49.     

Director General, Bangladesh Coast Guard

50.     

Director General, Bangladesh Fire Service and Civil Defence

51.     

Chairman, Bangladesh Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization

52.     

Cabinet Secretary

Member-Secretary


Meetings of the NDMC

The Council will meet at least once a year. It may co-opt any other members, if it deems fit and proper. The Council may invite any experts or professionals for briefing and expert opinion. The Council may constitute any committee to recommend policy, programming and/or implementation measures regarding disaster risk reduction and emergency response management. Decisions of the Council meetings will be implemented by the Inter-Ministerial Disaster Management Coordination Committee (IMDMCC).

 

Responsibilities of NDMC

  • Review national disaster management system and provide strategic advice for disaster risk reduction and emergency response management.
  • Review policy and planning documents on disaster management and provide strategic advice.
  • Promote dialogue across sectors with a view to integrate disaster risk reduction into sectoral development plans and programs.
  • Promote awareness regarding disaster risk reduction among top policy makers.
  • Evaluate disaster preparedness measures and provide strategic advice.
  • Evaluate response and recovery measures, particularly after a large-scale disaster and provide strategic direction towards improvement of the system and procedures.
  • Facilitate coordination of multi-hazard and multi-sectoral measures in relation to disaster risk reduction and emergency response management.

 

At the national level                    

  • National Disaster Management Council (NDMC) headed by the Prime Minister to formulate and review the disaster management policies and issue directives to all concerns.
  • Inter-Ministerial Disaster Management Co-ordination Committee (IMDMCC) headed by the Minister in charge of the MoDMR to implement disaster management policies and decisions of NDMC / Government.
  • National Disaster Management Advisory Committee (NDMAC) headed by an experienced person having been nominated by the Prime Minister.
  • National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (NPDRR) headed by Secretary, MoDMR and DG, DDM functions as the member secretary. This platform shall coordinate and provide necessary facilitation to the relevant stakeholders.
  • Earthquake Preparedness and Awareness Committee (EPAC) headed by Minister for MoDMR and DG, DDM act as member secretary.
  • Cyclone Preparedness Program Implementation Board (CPPIB) headed by the Secretary, MoDMR to review the preparedness activities in the face of initial stage of an impending cyclone.
  • Cyclone Preparedness Program (CPP) Policy Committee headed by Minister, MoDMR and Secretary, MoDMR act as member secretary.
  • Disaster Management Training and Public Awareness Building Task Force (DMTATF) headed by the Director General, DDM to coordinate the disaster related training and public awareness activities of the Government, NGOs and other organizations.
  • Focal Point Operation Coordination Group of Disaster Management (FPOCG) headed by the Director General of DDM to review and coordinate the activities of various departments/agencies related to disaster management and also to review the Contingency Plan prepared by concerned departments.
  • NGO Coordination Committee on Disaster Management (NGOCC) headed by the Director General of DDM to review and coordinate the activities of concerned NGOs in the country.
  • Committee for Speedy Dissemination of Disaster Related Warning/ Signals (CSDDWS) headed by the Director General of DDM to examine, ensure and find out the ways and means for the speedy dissemination of warning/ signals among the people.

 

At the Sub-national levels

  • District Disaster Management Committee (DDMC) headed by the Deputy Commissioner (DC) to coordinate and review the disaster management activities at the District level.
  • Upazila Disaster Management Committee (UZDMC) headed by the Upazila Nirbahi Officer (UNO) to coordinate and review the disaster management activities at the Upazila level.
  • Union Disaster Management Committee (UDMC) headed by the Chairman of the Union Parishad to coordinate, review and implement the disaster management activities of the concerned Union.
  • Pourashava Disaster Management Committee (PDMC) headed by Chairman of Pourashava (municipality) to coordinate, reviews and implements the disaster management activities within its area of jurisdiction.
  • City Corporation Disaster Management Committee (CCDMC) headed by the Mayor of City Corporations to coordinate, review and implement the disaster management activities within its area of jurisdiction.


Disaster Management Regulatory Framework

Bangladesh’s regulative framework for disaster management provides for the relevant legislative, policy and best practice framework under which the activity of Disaster Risk Reduction and Emergency Management in Bangladesh is managed and implemented. The framework includes:


Disaster Management Act

A Disaster Management Act is enacted with a view to create the legislative tool under which disaster risk and emergency management will be undertaken in Bangladesh, and the legal basis in which activities and actions will be managed. It will also create mandatory obligations and responsibilities on Ministries, committees and appointments. The objectives of the Act will be

a) To help communities to mitigate the potential adverse effects of hazard events, prepare for managing the effects of a disaster event, effectively respond to and recover from a disaster or an emergency situation, and adapt to adverse effects of climate change.

b) To provide for effective disaster management for Bangladesh

c) To establish an institutional framework for disaster management.

d) To establish risk reduction as a core element of disaster management.


National Disaster Management Policy

A National Disaster Management Policy is formulated to define the national perspective on disaster risk reduction and emergency management, and to describe the strategic framework, and national principles of disaster management in Bangladesh. It will be of strategic in nature and will describe the broad national objectives, and strategies in disaster management.


Disaster Management Plans

The Bangladesh National Plan for Disaster Management is a strategic document to be effective for a certain period of time. This is an umbrella plan that provides the overall guideline for the relevant sectors and the disaster management committees at all levels to prepare and implement their area of roles specific plans. Additionally, there are a few hazard specific management plans, such as Flood Management Plan, Cyclone and Storm Surge and Tsunami Management Plan, Earthquake Management Plan, Drought Management Plan, River Erosion Management Plan, etc. Moreover, there will be a detailed Disaster Management Plan for each District, Upazila, Union and Pourashava and City Corporation of the country. A District Disaster Management Plan will be the compilation of the Upazila Disaster Management Plans of the District. Similarly, an Upazila Disaster Management Plan are the compilation of the union disaster management plans of that Upazila prepared by the Union DMCs. So DMCs at Union and Pourashava levels will be mainly responsible for conducting the risk assessments and prepare the ground level plans. Once developed those will be sent to the DMCs at one level higher – Upazila DMCs, whose role will be to verify and compile the union plans and identify the resource requirements for the Upazila.


National Plan for Disaster Management

The National Plan for Disaster Management is prepared by the Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief. The plan includes the following as minimum:

  • Introduction
  • GoB Vision for Disaster Management
  • Hazards profile of Bangladesh
  • Disaster development linkages: national and international drivers for change
  • Aim of the plan
  • Strategic goals of the plan
  • Conceptualizing disaster management in Bangladesh
  • Disaster management system in Bangladesh.

The roles and responsibilities of entities involved in emergency operations and risk reduction:

  • Disaster management regulative framework
  • Action matrix for disaster risk reduction and emergency management in
  • Bangladesh describing the priorities and the strategies
  • Review and evaluation
  • Implementation and follow-up
  • Financing of the plan
  • Other matters relating to disaster management as deemed necessary by appropriate authority for inclusion in the plan

The Plan is to be used to:

  • Articulate the long-term strategic focus of disaster management in Bangladesh.
    • Demonstrate a commitment to address key issues: risk reduction, capacity building, information management, climate change adaptation, livelihood security, issues of gender and the socially disadvantaged, etc.
    • Show the relationship between the government vision, key result areas, goals and strategies, and to align priorities and strategies with international and national drivers for change.
    • Detail a road map for the development of disaster management plans by various entities.
  • Guide the DM&RD in the development and delivery of guidelines and programs.
    • Illustrate to other ministries, NGOs, civil society and the private sector how their work can contribute to the achievements of the strategic goals and government vision on disaster management.
    • Provide a framework within which to report performance and success in achieving goals and strategies.


District Disaster Management Plan (DDMP)

There is a District Disaster Management Committee (DDMC) at the District level. The DDMC consists of the Deputy Commissioner of the District as the chairperson and members comprising all District level department heads, NGO leaders and civil society members. District Relief and Rehabilitation Officer (DRRO) acts as member secretary of the committee. Members of Parliament act as advisors of the committees. The committee is required to meet bi-monthly during normal period and as and when necessary during emergency situation.

There will be a plan for each District titled “District Disaster Management Plan” comprising both disaster risk reduction and emergency response to be prepared by the District Disaster Management Committee. This is a plan to be prepared by compilation of the Upazila and Pourashava Disaster Management Plans of the District being received from the respective Upazila and Pourashava/City Corporation DMCs. The DDMP should highlight and articulate, among others, the following:

  • The areas in the District vulnerable to different forms of hazards and risks
  • Total resource requirements and the planned action for the District
  • To take measures for prevention and mitigation of disasters by government agencies, NGOs, CBOs and the private sector within the District:
  • Capacity building and preparedness measures to be taken by government agencies, NGOs, CBOs and the private sector.
  • Strengthening emergency response management system plans and procedures in the event of a disaster.
  • The response plans and procedures in the event of a disaster, providing for:
    • Allocation of responsibilities to the departments of the government at
    • District level and other DMC members
    • Procedure for mobilization of resources
    • Prompt response to disaster and relief thereof
    • Procurement of emergency supplies
    • Operation of disaster shelters
    • Restoration of emergency services, such as water supply, gas supply, power, telecommunication, road links
    • Provision of emergency medical services
    • Burial of dead bodies
    • Trauma counseling
    • The dissemination of information
  • Recovery plans and procedures delineating damage assessment procedure, restoration of damaged public infrastructure, resumption of educational institutions, restoration of livelihood, rehabilitation of affected people, especially the disabled, and elderly women and children.
  • The DDMP shall be reviewed and updated annually.
  • The copies of the DDMP shall be made available to all District level stakeholders, Divisional Commissioners, etc.
  • A copy of the DDMP will be sent to the Disaster Management Bureau and all relevant ministries and divisions.
  • The DMB/NDMTI will provide technical advice and capacity building services to all DMCs.


Upazila Disaster Management Plan (UzDMP)

Upazila is an important and vital administrative unit of Bangladesh. There is an Upazila Disaster Management Committee (UZDMC) at the Upazila level. The UzDMC consists of the Upazila Nirbahi Officer as the chairperson and members comprising all Upazila level department heads, NGO leaders and civil society members. The PIO acts as the member secretary of the committee. Members of Parliament act as advisors of the committees. The committee is required to meet bimonthly during normal period and as and when necessary during emergency situation. There will be a plan for each Upazila titled “Upazila Disaster Management Plan” comprising both disaster risk reduction and emergency response to be prepared by the Upazila Disaster Management Committee by compiling all the Union Disaster Management Plans of the Upazila being received from the respective Union DMCs of the Upazila. The UzDMP should highlight and articulate, among others, the following:

  • The areas in the Upazila vulnerable to different forms of hazards and risks.
  • Total resource requirements and the planned action for the District.
    • To take measures for prevention and mitigation of disasters by government agencies, NGOs, CBOs and the private sector within the District
    • Capacity building and preparedness measures to be taken by government agencies, NGOs, CBOs and the private sector.
    • Strengthening emergency response management system plans and procedures in the event of a disaster
  • The response plans and procedures in the event of a disaster, providing for:
    • Allocation of responsibilities to the departments of the government at District level and other DMC members
  • Procedure for mobilization of resources
  • Prompt response to disaster and relief thereof
  • Procurement of emergency supplies
  • Operation of disaster shelters
    • Restoration of emergency services, such as water supply, gas supply, power, road links, telecommunication etc.
  • Provision of emergency medical services
  • Burial of dead bodies
  • Trauma counseling
  • The dissemination of information
  • Recovery plans and procedures delineating damage assessment procedure, restoration of damaged public infrastructure, resumption of educational institutions, restoration of livelihood, rehabilitation of affected people, especially the disabled, and elderly women and children.
  • The UzDMP shall be reviewed and updated annually.
    • The copies of the UzDMP shall be made available to all Upazila level stakeholders and members of DDMCs.
  • A copy of the UzDMP will be sent to the District Disaster Management Committee and DMB.
  • The DMB/BIDMTR will provide technical advice and capacity building services to all DMCs.


Union Disaster Management Plan (UDMP)

Union Parishad is the lowest administrative unit of Bangladesh. There is a Disaster Management Committee at the Union level. The UDMC is chaired by the elected Chairman of the respective Union Parishad. The Union Disaster Management Committee consists of the Union Parishad Chairman as the Chairperson and members comprising all the Government department head at Union level, members of Union Parishad, NGO leaders working in respective union and civil society members. Secretary of the respective Union Parishad acts as the member secretary of the committee. The committee is required to meet bimonthly during normal period and as and when necessary during emergency situation. There will be a plan for each Union titled “Union Disaster Management Plan” comprising both disaster risk reduction and emergency response to be prepared by the Union Disaster Management Committee following a proper community risk assessment procedure to be provided by DM&RD with the participation of vulnerable groups and the communities. The UDMP should highlight and articulate, among others, the following:

  • Defining and redefining community risks to hazards utilizing both traditional and scientific knowledge.
  • Total resource requirements and the planned action for the District.
  • To take measures for prevention and mitigation of disasters by government agencies, NGOs, CBOs and the private sector within the District
  • Capacity building and preparedness measures to be taken by government agencies, NGOs, CBOs and the private sector
  • Strengthening emergency response management system plans and procedures in the event of a disaster
  • The response plans and procedures in the event of a disaster, providing for:
  • Allocation of responsibilities to the departments of the government at District level and other DMC members
    • Procedure for mobilization of resources
    • Prompt response to disaster and relief thereof
    • Procurement of emergency supplies
    • Operation of disaster shelters
    • Restoration of emergency services, such as water supply, gas supply, power, telecommunication, road links
    • Provision of emergency medical services
    • Burial of dead bodies
    • Trauma counseling
    • The dissemination of information
  • Recovery plans and procedures delineating damage assessment procedure, restoration of damaged public infrastructure, resumption of educational institutions, restoration of livelihood, rehabilitation of affected people, especially the disabled, and elderly women and children.
  • The UDMP shall be reviewed and updated annually.
  • The copies of the UDMP shall be made available to all Union level stakeholders, UNOs and DCs.
  • A copy of the UDMP will be sent to the Upazila Disaster Management Committee.
  • The DMB/BIDMTR will provide technical advice and capacity building services to all DMCs.


 Paurashava / City Corporation Disaster Management Plan

Pourashava is at the bottom of the urban administrative tier of Bangladesh. There is a Disaster Management Committee at the City Corporation/Pourashava level. The Pourashava Chairman is the head of the committee. The members of the Committee are all Pourashava commissioners, representatives from all the Government departments, NGOs and CBOs. Chief Executive Officer of the Pourashava is the member secretary of the committee. The committee is required to meet monthly during normal period and as and when necessary during emergency.

Besides, metropolitan cities in Bangladesh have City Corporation Disaster Management Committees with the Mayor as the Chairman and comprising members as it is in case of Pouroshavas.

There will be a plan for each Pourashava/City Corporation titled “Pourashava/City Corporation Disaster Management Plan” to be prepared by the “Pourashava/City Corporation Disaster Management Committee having linkages with the National Plan for Disaster Management. The PDMP/CCDMP should highlight and articulate, among others, the following:

  • The areas in the Pourashava/City Corporation vulnerable to different forms of hazards and risks.
  • Total resource requirements and the planned action for the District.
    • To take measures for prevention and mitigation of disasters by government agencies, NGOs, CBOs and the private sector within the District
    • Capacity building and preparedness measures to be taken by government agencies, NGOs, CBOs and the private sector
    • Strengthening emergency response management system plans and procedures in the event of a disaster
  • The response plans and procedures in the event of a disaster, providing for:
    • Allocation of responsibilities to the departments of the government at District level and other DMC members
    • Procedure for mobilization of resources
    • Prompt response to disaster and relief thereof
    • Procurement of emergency supplies
    • Operation of disaster shelters
    • Restoration of emergency services, such as water supply, gas supply, power, telecommunication, road links
    • Provision of emergency medical services
    • Burial of dead bodies
    • Trauma counselling
    • The dissemination of information
  • Recovery plans and procedures delineating damage assessment procedure, restoration of damaged public infrastructure, resumption of educational institutions, restoration of livelihood, rehabilitation of affected people, especially the disabled, and elderly women and children.
  • The PDMP shall be reviewed and updated annually.
  • The copies of the PDMP shall be made available to all Pourashava/city corporation level stakeholders, UNOs and DCs.
  • A copy of the PDMP will be sent to the District Disaster Management Committee and Disaster Management Bureau.
  • The DMB/ BIDMTR will provide technical advice and capacity building services to all DMCs.

Key Policy Documents on Disaster Management

Disaster Management Act

The Disaster Management Act provides the legal basis for disaster risk reduction and emergency response management in Bangladesh. This Act defines the organizational structure of disaster management at national and local levels and details the responsibilities of all government departments and committees related to the disaster management system.

Standing Orders on Disaster (1997,2010 and revised 2019)

The Standing Orders on Disaster detail the roles and responsibilities of each government body engaged in disaster management – ministries, committees, departments and other organizations. It also provides for the establishment of coordination processes at national and local levels.

National Strategy on the Management of Disaster and Climate-induced Internal Displacement

The strategy outlines processes for the management of climate-induced internal displacement that supports the implementation of the Sendai Framework and the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals. The strategy focuses on internal displacement caused by natural disasters. It does not address cross-border displacement issues. Three phases are addressed: pre-displacement, displacement and post-displacement.

Guidelines for Government at all Levels (Best Practice Models)

Guidelines for Government at all levels are developed as best practice models, and are used to assist Ministries, NGOs, disaster management committees and civil society in implementing disaster risk management. Guidelines will include, among others:

  • Disaster Impact and Risk Assessment Guideline
  • Local Disaster Risk Reduction Fund Management Guidelines
  • Emergency Fund Management Guidelines
  • Indigenous Coping Mechanism Guidebook
  • Community Risk Assessment Guidelines
  • Damage and Needs Assessment Methodology
  • Hazard Specific Risk Assessment Guidelines
  • Emergency Response and Information Management Guideline
  • Contingency Planning Template
  • Sectoral Disaster Risk Reduction Planning Template
  • Local Level Planning Template
  • National Risk Reduction Fund Management Guideline
  • National Disaster Reduction and Emergency Fund Management Guideline
  • Local Disaster Management Fund Guideline
  • Guideline for Road and Water Safety
  • Guideline for Industrial Safety
  • Guideline for Disaster Shelter Management
  • Monitoring and Evaluation Guideline for the Implementation of the Plan
  • Guideline for International Assistance in Disaster Emergency

Sectoral Development Plans Incorporating Disaster Risk Reduction

Every Ministry/Division of the Government of Bangladesh prepares their respective Sectoral Development Plans. DM&RD with the participation of sectoral experts will prepare a general guideline to incorporate disaster risk reduction agenda for the sectors. DM&RD will also be responsible for overall monitoring and follow-up of the process to ensure that disaster risk reduction agenda are mainstreamed within the sectoral policies, plans and programs. The development plans should address, among others, the following:

  • Defining and redefining risk environment through hazard analysis, vulnerability assessment, risk evaluation, risk treatment options, and risk treatments.
  • Managing the risk environment by developing programs and strategies that eliminate or reduce the level of risk. Traditionally mitigation programs were viewed as engineering solutions to eliminate risk, but it is now accepted that all activities undertaken to eliminate or reduce risk are “mitigation” strategies (e.g. community education and awareness, planning activities, development of warning systems). This includes activities previously described as the PPRR Model- Prevention, Preparedness, Response and Recovery.
  • Regularly review and update the plan.
  • Submit a copy of the plan and of any amendment thereto, to appropriate authority including the DM&RD.
  • Submit a copy of its disaster management plan, and of any amendment thereto, the concerned authority.

Hazard Specific Multi-Sectoral Disaster Management Plans

In addition to area specific disaster management plans and sector specific disaster risk reduction plans, it is envisaged that there will be a few hazard-specific management plans, such as earthquake management plan. This type of plans will be multi-sectoral and will be divided into two components: risk reduction and emergency response. This type of plans will address specific necessities to deal with a particular hazard.

Earthquake Contingency Plan

Over the past decades, urbanization in Bangladesh has been rapidly taking place without proper guidance. As a result, many of the urban centers have developed haphazardly. These urban centers are fast growing and influence the economic developments of the country. It is therefore essential to have a realistic understanding of the nature, severity and consequences of likely damage/loss that a possible earthquake event could cause. A strong earthquake affecting a major urban center like Dhaka, Chattogram, or Sylhet may result in damage and destructions of massive proportions and may have disastrous consequences for the entire nation. In the tectonic map of Bangladesh, Dhaka is near the Modhupur Fault and Plate Boundary Fault 3. The rapid increase in vulnerability of the city is evident from the rapid urbanization, population growth, population migration and development of major economic zones in and around Dhaka. Major causes that lead to a very high seriousness of the risk analysis related to earthquakes, include the haphazard urbanization and sub-standard construction of buildings. During sustained strong shaking, poorly consolidated, water saturated sediments can liquefy and lose their ability to support loads. The foundations and supports of structures built on liquefiable sediments can fail, causing damage or destruction during major earthquakes. Much of the country is of loose sandy soil and most of it remains in saturated condition round the year, thereby increasing the vulnerability to liquefaction in case of sustained ground motions. Possibility of fire outbreaks in the event of an earthquake as a secondary hazard is another source related to possible high economic losses.

Taking into consideration lessons learned and good practices from the 2015 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal, the government of Bangladesh, together with the UN RC and members of the international community agreed to focus preparedness efforts on the occurrence of a large-scale earthquake in Bangladesh in line with the UNDAF 2016-2020 and HCTT annual workplans. According to the latest information and research available, the large urbanization centres of Dhaka, Chattogram and Sylhet are likely to experience the greatest impact of the event in terms of destruction and number of people affected. Based on the average projections of a ‘worst case’ scenario, the possible humanitarian consequences include:

  1. The loss of life for 547,855 persons [164,570 men, 150,050 women, 121,095 boys, 112,139 girls]
  2. Injuries for 726,521 persons [240,045 men, 205,866 women, 150,530 boys, 130,079 girls]
  3. The displacement of 15,770,568 persons [4,841,962 men, 4,353,948 women, 3,436,345 boys, 3,138,313 girls].
  4. A total of 178,794 disabled persons would directly be impacted as well.

This is exacerbated by significant estimated damage to roads and public infrastructure impacting access to public services to affected communities. To optimize the speed, volume and quality of critical humanitarian assistance, the HCTT/UNCT has developed this contingency plan according to the RAPID approach to: 

  1. Reach a common understanding of earthquake risk to ensure early action is taken when required; 
  2. Establish a minimum level of earthquake preparedness across clusters; 
  3. Build the basis for a joint HCTT response strategy to meet the needs of affected people in the first 6 weeks to 3 months of a response; 
  4. Define considerations for detailed contingency planning on the basis of the worst-case scenario, especially around access and logistics; 
  5. Minimize the consequences of secondary disasters after earthquake.

It is evident from the past history of higher intensity earthquake in this region and the mild shakes experienced in recent dates as an initial call for earthquake in major cities of Bangladesh. As such, it is feared that a high intensity earthquake in these cities may result in to serious devastation and collapse the cities. Thus, a well-designed and fully coordinated plan for optimum and efficient preparedness, response and early recovery, usually known as Contingency Plan, in a systematic manner so that their capacities and resources are best utilized to fulfill the need complimenting and supplementing other agencies. Realizing the need of coordinated and comprehensive emergency response, United Nations has been promoting its humanitarian response activities in a cluster approach. In this approach, under National Earthquake Contingency Plan, all response activities are grouped into nine relevant operational functional clusters based on the similarity of works, normal and disaster time mandates of different relevant organizations and possible complementarily in the resources and capacities. The clusters are as follows:

  • Emergency Operations Cluster 1 – Overall Command and Coordination
  • Emergency Operations Cluster 2 – Search, Rescue and Evacuation
  • Health Cluster
  • Relief Services (Food, Nutrition and other Relief) Cluster
  • Shelter (Including Camp Management) Cluster
  • Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Cluster
  • Restoration of Urban Services Cluster
  • Transport (Road, Rail, Air, Sea) Cluster
  • Security and Welfare Cluster

Cyclone Shelter Plan

To face the aforesaid challenges particularly cyclone and tidal surges, different governmental & non-governmental organizations have constructed about 2,852 (CDMP 2009) cyclone shelters in the coastal belts of 16 Districts of the country. Out of 2,852 shelters, investigation reveals that 2,590 shelters are useable while 262 are not. These shelters are insufficient in terms of necessity. So it would not be possible to provide shelter to all the affected people as well as their domestic animals. A survey team captioned as Multipurpose Cyclone Shelter Program (MCSP) headed by Prof. Dr. Jamilur Reza Chowdhury recommended in its report of 1993 to construct 1,250 new cyclone shelter as priority no. 1 and 1,250 as priority no.2 for providing shelters to the affected people during disasters. The report also mentioned that the total number of 2,500 cyclone shelters including primary school, madrashas and secondary schools were proposed to be constructed.

These shelters have been constructed on the government khas land/institution’s land /purchased lands. There is a provision of separate latrine facilities for women. One tube-well for each shelter is set up for supplying pure drinking water. In normal periods, these shelters are being used as educational institution. Each of the Cyclone shelter station can accommodate approx. 800 people during emergency.

It was decided that Bangladesh’s plan of action should be inclusive to multi-hazard, all risk, and all sector approach. Therefore, following technical options are considered as critical element of the plan of action.

  • Comprehensive Risk assessment (Hazard Assessment and Vulnerability Assessment), including tsunami inundation modeling and evacuation mapping;
  • Warning Guidance, including seismic and sea level monitoring, data
  • Evaluation, processing and interpretation, forecasting methods and warning dissemination (a detailed plan of action is prepared);
  • Mitigation and Preparedness, including education and awareness Programs, structural and non-structural mitigations, government policy and emergency management procedures;
  • Development of Rescue, Relief and Rehabilitation Plan of Action based on Comprehensive Risk Assessment, and
  • Existing Cyclone Preparedness Program (CPP) should be strengthened in a way that they can prepare the community for tsunami as well as cyclone.

Management Aspects of Shelter Center in Coastal Zones

DMB proposes the facilitating role of local Disaster Management Committee in forming the Cyclone Center Management Committee for each center. The committee will have the following types of representation:

  • A member of local Disaster Management Committee
  • Locally Elected Representative (UP Member)
  • Head Master of local Primary School
  • Imam of Local Masjid
  • NGO representative
  • Women representative

DMB also propose for multipurpose use of the Cyclone Centers by local NGOs, Civil Society Groups and community people for public functions like marriage ceremonies, meetings, training sessions and other social functions under the supervision of CC Management Committee. The users will pay a minimum fee for using CC as maintenance charge. The Management Committee will be responsible for keeping financial statement of CC.

Disaster Resilient Cluster Housing

Climate change is changing the nature of the acute hazards. Bangladesh is suffering from increased numbers of intensified floods, cyclones and storm surge with higher magnitudes resulting damage of assets, properties, killing life and disrupting livelihoods of the millions living in the impacted areas. The impact areas are also spreading over time and space. In order to provide shelter to the people of the impacted areas to the shelters, Bangladesh needs a large number of new shelters that has already been discussed in the previous chapter. However, people living in the impacted areas are facing extreme weather events one after another, which are going to increase further in the coming future due to climate change. Early warning in the community language having reasonable lead-time is yet to develop and streamlined. Even if the warning is issued, people are not willing to shift to shelters because of many reasons.

First of all, there is a lack of awareness and sensitization, early warning is not clear to them and sometimes misleading, and finally they are hesitant to leave their livelihood-earning assets and properties. In the present situation and in the coming future, more such events may make people fatigued to shift to shelters more frequently. As such, this is the time to create alternative and additional options for the disaster-hit community. One of the alternative approaches is to convert houses into shelters. Government shall develop cluster housing for a group of households that are living in marginalized hazard prone lands, initially in Khas land with necessary utilities and infrastructures that are resilient to the hazards. This set up shall have the provisions for cattle and poultry shelter, seedbeds, and schools on raised land. The architecture shall be such that it will be in a position to accommodate the adversity of the hazard impacts.

Tsunami Response Plan

Following the 2004 Tsunami, and based on several exercises, workshops, seminars and meetings, a detailed draft plan of action is prepared for Bangladesh.

“The disaster management vision of the Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh is to reduce the risk of people, especially the poor and the disadvantaged, from the effects of natural, environment and human induced hazards to a manageable and acceptable humanitarian level and to have in place an efficient emergency response management system.” To ensure that the Government has prepared a “National Plan for Disaster Management” integrating all possible natural disasters that might attack Bangladesh, which is awaiting final approval.

Ongoing projects of DDM

In order to protect the human being and reduce the losses of lives and materials lot of humanitarian organizations and NGOs are working along with the Government. Some of the important ongoing project of the govt are as follows:

  1. National Resilience Project
  2. Strengthening of the Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief Program Administration (SMoDMRPA)
  3. Disaster Risk Management and Enhancement Project
  4. Urban Resilience Project
  5. Construction of 12993 Bridges and Culverts in rural area
  6. Construction of heringbon roads in rural area
  7. Construction of Multi-Purpose Cyclone shelters in coastal area
  8. Construction of Flood shelter station in flood prone area
  9. Construction of Mujib Killa- Cattle shelter station
  10. Construction of Relief Godown cum DM Information center in 64 Districts. Subsequently these will be constructed in each Upazilla.

Government Agencies involved in Disaster Management

As per the national policy of the govt, almost all ministries and departments are involved in the national committee for Disasters Management and Relief. Out of them following Ministries and Departments are the key players involved into administering the overall situation:

  1. Department of Disaster Management
  2. Armed Forces Division
  3. NGO Affairs Bureau
  4. Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  5. Ministry of Defense
  6. Ministry of Home Affairs

Department of Disaster Management (DDM)

Department of Disaster Management (DDM) under the Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief was set up in November 2012 following enactment of the Disaster Management Act 2012. The Department has the mandate to implement the objectives of Disaster Management Act by reducing the overall vulnerability from different impacts of disaster by undertaking risk reduction activities ; conducting humanitarian assistance programs efficiently to enhance the capacity of poor and disadvantaged as well as strengthening and coordinating programs undertaken by various government and non-government organizations related to disaster risk reduction and emergency response. DDM is responsible to execute the directions, recommendations by the Government in connection with disaster management as well as the national disaster management principles and planning.

DDM headed by the Director General focuses on networking and collaborating with the various Ministries, Departments and Scientific, Technical, Research, Academic institutions, Development Partners, UN Agencies and non-government Organizations within and outside the Government working on various aspects of disaster risk reduction and response management. DDM conducts research, organizes workshops and training programs, publishes its reports and documents and provide various policy advisory services to the concerned Ministry of the Government of Bangladesh. DDM has the vision to be recognized as a vibrant Centre of Excellence for knowledge, research and capacity building on disaster management for the Disaster Management professionals across level.

Mission & Vision of DDM

The Vision, the Mission, the Function and the Modalities for setting up the Department of Disaster Management (DDM) were determined in the light of Disaster Management Act 2012 and in consultation with the Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief.

List of Officers- Department of Disaster Management

NameDesignationPhone (Office)Email

Md Mohshin

Director General (Additional Secretary)

880-2-8835495

880-1711161926

dg@ddm.gov.bd

Md. Harun or Rahshid

Director (Training & Research)

880-2-9859637

880-1711966019

harun_171965@yahoo.com

Md. Abu Bakar Siddique

Director (Admin)

880-2-9892398

880-1711937880

talukderurmila@yahoo.com

Md. Abu Bakar Siddique

Director (FFW)

880-2-9861113

880-1715002101

bsiddique06@gmail.com

A.T. M Kamrul Islam Tang

Director (Plang. & Dev.)

880-2-9858755

880-1711982363

kamrulislamtang@gmail.com

Mohammad Golam Mostofa

Director (MIM)

880-2-9859636

880-1711319563

gmostofa11963@gmail.com

Md. Iftekharul Islam

Director (Relief)

880-2-9860386

880-1731461272

islameftekharul@yahoo.com

Md. Anisur Rahman

Director (Monitoring &Evaluation)

880-2-9860523

880-1711056098

rohmananisur@yahoo.com

Giasudding Ahmed

Director (VGD)

880-2-9860209

880-1715001357

dvgf@ddm.gov.bd

Netai Chandra Dey Sarker

Asst Director (GIS)

8802-9882367

01552331433

netai@gmail.com

Mohammad Hafizur Rahman

Office in Charge (Emergency Response Center) (Addl. Charge)

880-2-58811651

880-1515670067

hafiz.ddm@gmail.com

Kamrun Nahar

Project Implementation Officer

88-01728362227

kamrunddm@gmail.com


Armed Forces Division (AFD)

Armed Forces Division is an extension of Prime Minister’s office for promulgation of policies, issuing Government approvals for Armed Forces deployment and coordination between Services Headquarters. It is a principal government organ for the coordination of all operational matters as well as important administrative matters relating to the Armed Forces. It has the authority, direction and control over Services on operational and administrative matter under the direct supervision and guidance of the Prime Minister. As per Government notification, Principal Staff Officer (PSO) is entrusted to perform the duties of a full-fledged Secretary with full administrative and financial authority as that of a Secretary in any other Division / Ministry.

Armed Forces Division plays a vital role in disaster management as part of our overall national strategy to cope with disaster. We have a comprehensive set of standing orders for disaster management (SOD), delineating the role and responsibility of all concerned agencies in disaster management. The Food and Disaster Management Ministry is the prime Government organ on whose request, AFD works primarily in aid to the civil power to mitigate the crisis.

The prime role of AFD is to coordinate the employment of Armed Forces in disaster management and the overall relief operation. A monitoring cell is established to coordinate with all concerned ministries of the government, which includes MOFA, MOHA, Civil Aviation, MODMR, Ministry of Health and of course friendly Armed Forces.

Armed Forces provide following service to affected population:

  • Transportation of relief goods by Armed Forces assets (Helicopter and Fixed Wing Air Craft).
  • Transportation of relief goods in affected districts through road, river and air route using Army, Naval, Airforce and Civil assets.
  • Augment civil health care service by Armed Forces Medical Teams.
  • Clearing of roads and restoration of road communication.
  • Assist in restoration of telecommunication.

List of Officers-AFD

Name

Appt

Phone & e-mail

Lieutenant General Md Mahfuzur Rahman, OSP, rcds, ndc, afwc, psc, PhD

Principal Staff Officer to AFD

9834320

afdpso@gmail.com

 Brig Gen Md Nurul Anwar, hdmc, afwc, psc, G

Director General, Ops & Plan

983-4330 (Off)

01730332153 & 01769014330

dg_ops@afd.gov.bd

 Brig Gen Mashrur Hossain Bhuiyan, afwc, psc

Admin & Logistics Directorate

983-4380 (Off),

01729-227227, 01769014380

dg_admin@afd.gov.bd

 Air Cdre A S M Fakhrul Islam, GUP, ndc, afwc, psc

Director General- Trg

983-4360 (Off), 01769014360

dg_trg@afd.gov.bd

 Cdre Bashir Uddin Ahmed, (G), ndc, psc, BN

Director General, (Civil Military Relationship)

9834370

dg_cmr@afd.gov.bd

 Sqn Ldr Syed Abdullah Al Mamun, GD (P)

PS to PSO 

 9834322

ps2pso@afd.gov.bd

 

 NGO Affairs Bureau

The NGO Affairs Bureau has the following responsibilities:

  • Providing one stop service to NGOs in respect of registration & processing of project proposals.
  • Approval of NGO projects, fund releases, permission for appointment of foreign expatriate consultants and fixation of their tenure.
  • Examination and evaluation of reports/returns submitted by the NGOs.
  • Coordination, monitoring, evaluation and inspection of NGO activities.
  • Collection of fees/service charges levied by the government.
  • Inspection of field level NGO activities and examining their accounts.
  • Liaison with the donors and the NGOs.
  • Formulation of reports on NGO activities and take appropriate measures.
  • Enlistment of Chartered Accounting Firms for auditing of Accounts of the NGO.
  • Approval of proposals for one-time grants.
  • Other matters relating to NGO Affairs.


NGO Affairs Bureau

Prime Minister's Office

Plot-E-13/B, Agargaon

Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207

Telephone (PABX)

5 5001 407 -9 (Reception-0)

Fax

5500741 0-11

E-mail

naffairsb@yahoo. com/info@ngoab. gov.bd

Website

www.ngoab. gov.bd


List of Officers

Name & Designation

Telephone Numbers

e-mail Address

K. M. Abdus Salam

Director General

55007400 Ext: 111

(P.A.-112)

dg@ngoab.gov.bd

salam_5395@yahoo. com

Md. Shahadat Hossain Director (Reg. & Audit) Joint Secretary

55007397 (Direct) ext: 113

(PA: l14) , 01 5523 80993

dreg@ngoab.gov.bd

Dr. Md. Helal Uddin

Director (Project-1), (Addl Secy)

55007403 Ext: 115

0171 1-006004

dirl@ngoab.gov.bd

Gokul Krishna Ghosh

Director (Project-2), (Joint Secy)

5500'7404 Ext: 117

017 1 1 -398252

di12@ngoab.gov.bd

gokulghosh19@gmail.com

Md. Anwar Hossain

Deputy Director (General), (DS)

55007399 Ext: 568

017 12-261727

ddg@ngoab.gov.bd

Emergency Preparedness Scenario

Disaster Scenarios

The geographical location and topographical features of Bangladesh have exposed the country to almost all kinds of natural and human induced disasters. The monsoon weather brings in tornados and cyclones affecting the entire country with high tidal upsurges at the coastal belts during March-June and October-December and due to heavy rainfall in the country as well as in the northern Indian states of Assam and Maghalaya, floods occur almost every year affecting almost two thirds of the country during the months of July to October. Although significant earthquake- tremors or Tsunamis did not take place in Bangladesh since over 100 years, a considerable part of the country falls under ‘Earthquake zone’ and mild tremors continues to occur in the southern parts of the country without any significant casualties or life loss, so far, but the country remains at threat of moderate to major earthquakes along with disasters like Tsunami.

Major Hazards of Bangladesh

There are number of hazards and risks have so far been seen and experinced. Flood including Flash Flood, Cyclone & Tidal surge, Tornado, River erosion, Landslides, medium Earthquake, Drought, etc have already made the severly sufferer. But the most dangerous impact of a major Earthquake is expected anytime in Bangladesh. Though by now the country has faced different types of disasters and managed them. Bangladesh with its sincere organised efforts could overcome those situatuations including reducing the losses of lives and property. But it didn’t have any experience of managing high scale earthquake.

Bangladesh and the northeastern Indian states have long been seismically active regions of the world, and have experienced numerous large earthquakes during the past 200 years. Many of seismic-tectonic studies have been undertaken on the area comprising the Indo-Burman ranges and their western extension in the northern India. Major active fault zones of the country have been delineated through geological trenching methods.

Therefore it is very esssential to formulate planes/SODs, exercise them and be prepared to manage the situation so that the risk and losses are reduced. The govt alongwith UN/INGOs/NGOs are conducting various exercises Participated by Bangladesh Armed Forces to make the stakholders prepared and aware the general mass. Among them Disaster Response Exercise and Exchange (DREE) is one of the most talked about Exercise in the field of Earthquake preparedness in the South East Asia region.

Disaster Response Exercise and Exchange (DREE)

Disaster Response Exercise and Exchange (DREE) was conducted for the first time in 2010, with a focus on capability exchange and the Incident Command System (ICS). Since then every year this Exercise is coordinated by the Armed Forces Division, where different concerned Ministries, Govt Divisions and other agencies have been participating including foreign friendly Military forces. The DREE were built upon the best practices and technical capacity development of the previous years and enhanced interoperability and capacity with a Table-Top Exercise (TTX) and Field exercise in different areas. Through this exercise, following subject matters are being focused:

  • Evaluation of Public, private and military medical facilities.
  • Response on tactical earthquake.
  • Integration to command and control in the field,
  • Urban search & rescue techniques and practices,
  • Engineering assessment capacity and debris management.
  • Evaluation of communication, movement and distribution of critical supplies, engineering, health and prioritization on response efforts.
  • develop functional plan on different items like communication, medical, first responder’s approach etc
  • Use of a comprehensive database through the web for responding to any disaster

The DREEs always tried to emphasize on the planning, coordination and communication aspects, media, incorporation of foreign militaries, international humanitarian assistance, etc so that the best output is achieved for earthquake preparedness.

Objectives of DREE  

  • Test and enhance own ability of managing earthquake disaster at City Corporation Level through establishment of Disaster Incident Management Team (DIMT) focusing SAR, communication (DRECS), medical, shelter, relief, etc.
  • Enhance knowledge and practice of international tools and services for integration of international system into national system.
  • Train divisional level planners/disaster coordinators (military and civilian), so that they can arrange similar exercise/training at divisional/local level.

Humanitarian Community in Bangladesh

Humanitarian Coordination in Bangladesh

In 2012, a humanitarian coordination system in Bangladesh was established following a consultative process to review disaster preparedness and response arrangements. The review was jointly led by the Secretary of MoDMR Secretary and the UN RC under the auspices of the Local Consultative Group Disaster and Emergency Response (LCG DER) itself co-chaired by the UN and the MoDMR. This process resulted in the establishment of the Humanitarian Coordination Task Team (HCTT) under the LCG-DER and of nine humanitarian clusters and several working groups.

Since its inception the HCTT has played an important role in coordinating humanitarian action. It has overseen responses to a range of disaster events in Bangladesh. In addition to its coordination function the HCTT plays a vital role in formalizing and strengthening the relationship between the Government of Bangladesh and national and international humanitarian organizations. Today, the HCTT comprises an additional cluster, the GBV cluster established in 2016, 3 representatives of the national NGO coordination platform led by DDM, 3 representatives of international NGOs representing the INGO emergency sub- committee and two representatives of the donor community. Working groups are: Cash Working Group (CwG), Shongjog, NAWG. Discussions are on-going concerning the establishment of the ETC Cluster. Moreover, BDRCS is being consulted for leading a new IMWG. IFRC is the co-lead of the Shelter cluster.

Coordination in Bangladesh through the LCG Mechanism

The Local Consultative Group (LCG) comprises the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) and all bilateral and multilateral Development Partners (DPs). The LCG’s goal is to ensure effective and efficient use of external aid in line with the GoB’s national development plan. This involves policy dialogue at several levels, information sharing about operations, and harmonization and alignment in accordance with the Paris Principles and Accra Agenda for Action on aid effectiveness. Currently there are seventeen sectoral and thematic LCG Working Groups (WG), including one region specific WG, jointly chaired by relevant Government and DP counter-part. The LCG Disaster and Emergency Response WG, one of the seventeen WGs, was established in January 2001. This national forum brings together Government, NGOs, donors and UN Agencies concerned with improving the effectiveness and efficiency of emergency response.

Reinforced National Humanitarian Coordination Architecture

To reinforce national ownership and national direction to HCTT’s work, proposals were made in order to strengthen the humanitarian system, especially in preparation for a response to a large-scale disaster response such as an earthquake in an urban centre.

  1. Revise membership of the National Disaster Management Committee (NDMC)/Inter-Ministerial Disaster Management Committee (IMDMC) to include the UNRC and BDRCS’s chairman for supporting the overall guidance to the HCTT. That would foster strategy engagement at the highest level as the NDMC is chaired by the PMO and comprises key authorities (including MoFA).
  2. Integrate military-to-military and civil-military coordination mechanism in the overall architecture;
  3. Improve dialogue and coordination within the donor community;
  4. Strengthen key clusters and inter-cluster groups by promoting the recognition of their added-value by the GoB;
  5. Integrate in the coordination architecture key tools and services that might be requested by the national authorities in case of large-scale natural disasters (i.e. OSOCC, USAR, EMT);
  6. Adapt and decentralize the humanitarian coordination architecture that takes notably in consideration the specific context of intervention (e.g. CHT Districts).

The Humanitarian Coordination Task Team (HCTT) advocated for the inclusion of the cluster system and the HCTT platform in the current revision of the Standing Order on Disasters (SODs). In addition, the need was highlighted to organize high-level quarterly strategic meetings between NDMC members (that would include the UNRC) with a view to reinforcing humanitarian engagement in support of key national authorities3. The elements of the proposed structure are outlined below. The HCTT advocated for the strengthening of Humanitarian Civil-Military Coordination. The PMO has recently established a Consultative Group on Civil-Military Coordination to be led by MoDMR and AFD to facilitate interaction between humanitarian and military actors in disaster response, and to guide the development of policy and strategic advice.


For contact information for UN Agencies, INGOs and National NGOs, please see 4.2 Bangladesh Humanitarian Agency Contact List