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Disasters, Conflicts and Migration

Natural Disasters

Yes / No

Comments / Details

Drought

n/an/a

Earthquakes

 Yes

10-Oct-1980 – Number Killed : 2633

21-May-2003 – Number Killed : 2266

Epidemics

n/an/a

Extreme Temperatures

n/an/a

Flooding

Yes

Mainly floods and strong sand dunes at the desert cause some damage at refugee camps.

10-Nov-2001 – Number Killed : 921

1-Oct-2008 – Number killed : 93

Insect Infestation

n/an/a

Mudslides

n/an/a

Volcanic Eruptions

n/an/a

High Waves / Surges

n/an/a

Wildfires

n/an/a

High Winds

n/an/a

Other Comments

n/a

Man-Made Issues

Civil Strife

 Yes 1991 to 2002: political dispute Algeria suffered from a violent armed conflict.

International Conflict

n/an/a

Internally Displaced Persons

n/an/a

Refugees Present

 Yes

 Western Sahara: Due to the harsh and hostile desert environment and isolation, there are few opportunities for self-reliance activities; the desert will only support limited livestock and minimal vegetable cultivation.

Refugees rely on humanitarian assistance from the international community and remain in camps.

Landmines / UXO Present

n/an/a

Other Comments:

Transport Accident:

  • 28-Jan-1982 – Number Killed : 120
  • 11-Feb-2014– Number Killed : 103
  • 6-Mar-2003 – Number Killed : 102
  • 19-Jan-2004 – Number Killed : 27
  • 17-Aug-2002 – Number Killed : 26

For more detailed database on disasters by country, please see the Centre for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters

Calamities and Seasonal Affects

Northern Algeria is in the temperate zone and enjoys a mild, Mediterranean climate. It lies within approximately the same latitudes as southern California and has somewhat similar climatic conditions. Its broken topography, however, provides sharp local contrasts in both prevailing temperatures and incidence of rainfall. Year-to-year variations in climatic conditions are also common. Temperatures in summer average between 21 and 24 °C (70 and 75 °F) and in winter drop to 10 to 12 °C (50 to 54 °F). Winters are not cold, but the humidity is high and houses are seldom adequately heated. In eastern Algeria, the average temperatures are somewhat lower, and on the steppes of the High Plateaus winter temperatures hover only a few degrees above freezing. A prominent feature of the climate in this region is the sirocco, a dusty, choking south wind blowing off the desert, sometimes at gale force. This wind also occasionally reaches into the coastal Tell.

In Algeria only a relatively small corner of the Sahara lies across the Tropic of Cancer in the Torrid Zone, but even in winter, midday desert temperatures can be very hot. After sunset, however, the clear, dry air permits rapid loss of heat, and the nights are cool to chilly. Enormous daily ranges in temperature are recorded.
Rainfall is fairly abundant along the coastal part of the Tell, ranging from 400 to 670 mm (15.7 to 26.4 in) annually, the amount of precipitation increasing from west to east. Precipitation is heaviest in the northern part of eastern Algeria, where it reaches as much as 1,000 mm (39.4 in) in some years. Farther inland the rainfall is less plentiful. Prevailing winds that are easterly and northeasterly in summer change to westerly and northerly in winter and carry with them a general increase in precipitation from September to December, a decrease in the late winter and spring months, and a near absence of rainfall during the summer months.

Seasonal Affects on Storage and Handling (economic, social, climate...)

Sometimes, especially in February and March,  heavy rains causes floods affecting the main and only road from Oran port to Tindouf/Rabouni resulting in delay of delivery of food and other humanitarian commodities to the EDP.

Unpredicted sand dunes and rains at Rabouni, can also cause some damages to food stocks, especially those stored in the open platforms.

Capacity and Contacts for In-Country Emergency Response

Government

4.1 Algeria Government Contact List

The Civil protection directorate is the primary actor responsible for coordinating implementation of comprehensive preparedness, response and recovery measures at the national and local levels
Among the natural hazards to which our country remains exposed include the earthquake and floods and forest fires. During the last two decades, Algeria has been hard hit by several earthquakes and including a series of floods that caused losses human life and extensive damage. Natural events (earthquakes, floods, etc..) are violent when a large number of victims. Their violence and their consequences are fortunately not always catastrophic However, disasters that have occurred in Algeria recently (floods and Bab El Oued Ghardaia, Boumerdes earthquake) show that in such situations, human and material damage can be considerable.
Article 2 of the Law 04-20 of 25 December 2004 on the prevention of major risks and disaster management in the cascade of sustainable development calls for major risk any likely threat to man and his environment may occur due to exceptional natural hazards and / or due to human activities
Under Article 10 of the said Act, the following risks are major risks to which our country can be exposed:

  • Seismic and geological hazards
  • floods,
  • climate risks,
  • forest fires,
  • industrial and energy risks,
  • radiological and nuclear hazards,
  • risks on human health,
  • risks related to animal and plant health,
  • atmospheric pollution, terrestrial, marine and water,
  • disaster risks related to major human groups.

Management of a major risk overall:

It includes the prevention and management of disasters.

  • The prevention of major risks

It includes all measures to reduce the impact of a natural phenomenon or due to the predictable man on persons and property. In other words these are all measures to ensure a predictable phenomenon turns into disaster. The prevention of major risks is based in particular on:

  • Rules and general requirements for all major hazards,
  • Specific requirements for each major risk,

Disaster management:

The disaster management system is constituted by a planning aid (the ORSEC shots), as well as structural measures for the management of disasters.
As part of its responsibilities for the protection of persons and property, the Department of Interior and Local Government, organizes relief interventions to deal with potential disasters, through the mobilization of services Civil Protection, Local authorities and other state services through the implementation of ORSEC plans.
When disaster occurs and exceeds the response capacity of wilaya or she touches many of them, the Ministry of the Interior has a National Help Centre tool in the decision referred to help to Decision, CNAD abbreviation. In this case, a crisis met under the authority of the first Minister or the Minister of the Interior. It is responsible for:

  • Gather with stakeholders with the information necessary preventive measures and protection of persons and property,
  • Identify, centralize, mobilize and make available to the authorities in order to conduct operations to protect and rescue
  • Ensure the effective implementation of contingency plans and emergency
  • Facilitate and coordinate the response of different stakeholders and allow the exercise of their responsibilities in the best conditions,
  • Continuously inform the Superior Authority on the management of the crisis,
  • Ensure the management of reception of evacuee’s places
  • Manage information populations.

In this context, after the floods of Ghardaia a national crisis has been installed at the Ministry of the Interior and Local Government for the purpose of coordinating and organizing interdepartmental relief and audience

After Crisis

Once the crisis is over, players may operate at different levels to restore the situation to return to normal life including:

  • rehabilitating damaged houses,
  • facilitating the resumption of activities,
  • compensating victims according to the regulations,
  • evaluating and analysing the past event, in order to draw lessons for the future.

Following the floods of Bab El Oued and Boumerdes earthquake, the Ministry of the Interior and Local Government has, on the instructions of the Minister of State, established in 2004 a working group to update the ORSEC, and consider an alert by risk type device.

Humanitarian Community

4.2 Algeria Humanitarian Agency Contact List

The main co-operating government body is the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Office for Humanitarian Affairs. The Algerian Red Crescent (ARC) being responsible to coordinate all international humanitarian assistance in the country, has been nominated by the government as the cooperating partner for coordinating, clearing and forwarding humanitarian aid and warehouse management. Their main office is at Algiers, and they have branch offices at Oran (to facilitate port arrivals) and at Tindouf. UNHCR is the other main cooperating partner for humanitarian relief and coordinate distribution, monitoring and nutrition activities.