Somalia Country Profile
Somalia officially known as The Federal Republic of Somalia (in Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya), is located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on the mainland, and its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains and highlands. Hot conditions prevail year-round, along with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall.
Somalia has a population of 10.3 million people (2013 Projection). About 85% of local residents are ethnic Somalis, who have historically inhabited the northern part of the country. Ethnic minority groups make up the remainder of the nation's population and are mainly concentrated in the southern regions. Somali and Arabic are the official languages of Somalia of which both belong to the Afro-Asiatic family. Most people in the territory are Muslims, the majority being Sunni.
Somalia has not had a central functioning Government since 1991, although Somaliland and Puntland both have a better stability and governance compared to the central and south, which have weaker government structures and diverse livelihoods. Somalia has one of the world’s highest numbers of internally displaced people estimated at 1.4 million. The high displacement of its population is believed to be caused by Food Insecurity, Armed Conflict, Political Instability, Dilapidated Infrastructure and its Volatile Markets.
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For information on the Clan System in Somalia, please see the following link: Somalia Clan System