Chad - 1.1 Chad Humanitarian Background



Chad is one of the poorest countries in the world, ranking 190th out of 191 in the Human Development Index and 117th of 121 in the Global Hunger Index (2022). Within this context of poverty and stalled development, Chad faces interconnected humanitarian crises. The country hosts large refugee and IDP populations. It, is extremely vulnerable to climate change stressors, faces severe levels of food insecurity and malnutrition, and remains politically fragile because of conflict within its borders and in neighboring countries. The compounding of these challenges has led to a large need for humanitarian assistance. OCHA’s 2022 Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) highlighted that more than one in three people in Chad (5.5 million) need humanitarian assistance. Despite significant efforts by humanitarian actors to fulfill assistance requirements, only 42% of the 510.9 million USD required for humanitarian funding needs in 2022 were received. 

Disasters, Conflicts and Migration 



Comments / Details 



Drought is endemic to Chad. The Sahelian-Saharan region experiences periodic drought preceding the rainy season (April to June), when it is generally hot and dry. With climate change, Chad has become trapped within a vicious cycle of severe drought followed by severe flooding (as experienced in 2022).  Prolonged droughts, due to the lack of arable land, often lead to heightened food insecurity in the East, Sahel, and Sahara areas. In the 2022 lean season, an estimated 2.1 million people were severely food insecure.  






Chad has experienced outbreaks of Cholera, Measles, Hepatitis E, Typhoid, Polio, Meningitis, and Malaria in recent years. The risk to contract an infectious disease is severely high.  Malaria is the main cause for mortality of children less than 5 years old and remains a serious public health challenge. Per 2022 estimates, 1,700 people die of malaria each year. Chad’s proximity to Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Sudan , and Nigeria, makes the risk of transmission of disease across borders high.  

Extreme Temperatures 


Chad constantly experiences high temperatures. Typically, extreme heat occurs during the dry season in the North. In Faya-Largeau, the hottest temperature ever recorded in Chad (47.6 C) was experienced in 2010. In April 2023, temperatures are expected to reach as high as 44 C across the country.  



The prevalence of flooding continues to intensify in Chad. During the rainy season, the risk of flooding is incredibly high because of the preceding intense dry season. In 2022, the floods were the worst the country has experienced in 3 decades. Approximately 1.06 million people in 18 provinces were impacted by the floods. In the capital (N’Djamena) alone, some 100,000 people have been displaced.  

Insect Infestation 


Like other Sahelian and East African countries, Chad deals with locust infestations annually. Typically, infestations begin towards the end of the dry season (mid-June to July) and last throughout the wet season. In 2022, low numbers of hoppers and solitarious adults were recorded in Chad. In addition to locusts, other crop eating insects like weevils and mites are common.   



Although there are not mudslides, mass running water (known as Ouadi) accumulates during the wet season. Sometimes, Ouadi can cause damage to infrastructure, block transportation pathways, and lead to the kick up of debris (like a mudslide). The start of the great rains prevents not only the use of trucks but also reconditioning operations, loading, and unloading of foodstuffs. 

Volcanic Eruptions 





High Waves / Surges 


High winds are relatively common in the Lake Chad region. When the winds pick up, high waves and surges threaten the livelihoods of those who live on the shores of the lake. The dwindling of the lake has led to the development of settlements close to the actual body of water.  




High Winds 


High winds and dust storms are relatively common in the Lake Chad basin because of the dwindling of the lake. Although there is a debate over the reasons for the disappearance of the lake, its ’s shrinking gives way to winds and dust storms. In other regions of Chad, high winds are not as commonplace.  

Other Comments 

Chad is perhaps the single most vulnerable country to climate change in the entire world. Climate studies suggest that temperatures will continue to increase while rainfall decreases. Rapid desertification, whether through climate change or pastoralist practices, will continue to put pressure on the livelihoods of rural peoples.  




Man-Made Issues 

Civil Strife 


Most recently, Chadian society was shocked by the death of President Idriss Déby Itno while visiting forces fighting against rebels from the Front for Change and Concord in Chad (FACT) in 2021. Déby’s death led to the formation of a military transition council which is run by Déby’s son, Mahamat Idriss Déby. Uncertainty about future governance led to public demonstrations in 2022 which resulted in multiple causalities. Chad has experienced political instability of this type in the past. Demonstrations to contest political decisions or elections are not rare in Chad. On such occasions, cases of deaths and arrests by security armed police are sometimes reported. Other factors which contribute to civil strife include: 

  1. Conflict between farmers and pastoralists over land tenure as a source of armed conflict especially in the South, Eastern, and Sahel regions. 

  1. Rising prices of food and petroleum products. 

  1. Terrorists are likely to try to carry out attacks in Chad. There is a threat of retaliatory attacks from terrorist organizations following the French intervention in Mali and Chad’s involvement in the regional fight to counter Boko Haram. 

  1. Armed robberies, particularly from cars in residential areas of N’Djamena, are common. 

International Conflict 


In addition to civil wars and internal fighting, Chad has been both involved in international conflicts (such as the Chadian-Libyan war) and a location for refuge from conflicts in other places. Chad is home to Sudanese refugees in the East and Central African Republic and Cameroonian refugees in the South. The Lake Chad region has also become an area of intense conflict because of the presence of Boko Haram, government operations to contain them, and an influx internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees from Nigeria.  


Internally Displaced Persons 


As of October 31st, 2022, there were 381,289 internally displaced persons (IDPs) living in Chad. The majority of the IDP settlements within Chad are in the Lac region near Lake Chad.  

Refugees Present 


As of October 31st, 2022, there were 576,645 refugees living in Chad. Most of these refugees (394,666 people or 68% of the refugee population) come from Sudan. In addition to Sudanese refugees, there are refugee populations from Central African Republic (124,491 people), Cameroon (35,907 people), Nigeria (20,257 people), the Democratic Republic of Congo (261 people), and an unspecified origin (1,063 people).  

Landmines / UXO Present 


Decades of conflict with Libya have left Chad with a landmine and UXO problem. Some estimates suggest that there could be as many as 1 million landmines in Chad. According to the Chadian military, however, there are approximately 10,000 mines in Aouzou; 2,000 in Zouar; 31,000 in Wour; 10,000 in Oudi Doum; 2,000 in Fada; 5,000 in Ounianga-Kabir and 10,000 in other locations. 

 The “Commissariat National au Deminage’’ is Chad’s government agency dedicated to mine clearance. According to the Commission’s website, there are currently 6 demining projects underway for 2022-2023.  


For more information see links below: 



Relief Web 



Commissariat National au Deminage 

For a more detailed database on disasters by country, please see the Centre for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters Country Profile. 


Seasonal Effects on Logistics Capacities 

Seasonal Effects on Transport 

Transport Type 

Time Frame 

Comments / Details 

Primary Road Transport 


Chad is a large exporter of crude petroleum (1.19 billion USD in 2020) so some transport routes in Chad are relatively developed. For example, the route from the capital, Ndjamena, to Abeche is comprised of asphalt. However, most of the roads outside Ndjamena are found in poor condition during the rainy season. The heavy rains, often concentrated in the south, leave the region flooded and isolated from other parts of the country making transport and commerce difficult. 

Secondary Road Transport 

June- September 

There are unpaved often unnamed roads throughout Chad. Secondary roads are typically those that lead to smaller communities in rural areas and are maintained by local authorities. In some cases, the status of the road changes based on weather conditions. During the rainy season, most unpaved roads are impassable for trucks with commodity shipments. It is for this reason that humanitarian agencies will pre-position commodities prior to the rainy season in tactical warehouse locations throughout the country. Given the difficulties associated with access during this time, a special fee for transporting humanitarian cargo to distribution points in the localities of the East and  

South is charged by transporters.  


Rail Transport 


Chad does not currently have rail capacity. The closest rail access point is in Ngaoundéré, Cameroon.  

Air Transport 


In Chad, there is one primary airport and numerous secondary and tertiary airports. Typically, the primary airport (N’djamena International) is operational year-round. However, secondary airports and tertiary airport operations are more weather dependent. During the rainy season, some airports around the country cannot be used because of flooding or shutdown runways because of heavy rains.  

Waterway Transport 

June- September 

There is limited waterway transport within Chad. During the dry season, water transport is non-existent. During the wet season, the Chadian waterway transport system consists of two rivers in the south, the Chari and Logone. The Chari runs about 1200 Km from the southeast to the Lake Chad region. While the Logone runs about 1000 km from north to south where it meets the Mbere river and enters Cameroon.  

Geographically, Chad is divided into three geographical zones: the Sahara Desert (north), Sahelian Belt (center), and Sudanian Savannah (south). There are only two seasons: the wet and dry seasons. Each year, the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) crosses Chad from north to south resulting in a rainy season. In the north, the rains typically last from June to September and in the South from May to October. During the rainy season, in both regions, roads are often blocked, impassable, or dangerous because of inadequate drainage infrastructure. Therefore, logistic capacities are severely limited during this period.    


Seasonal Effects on Storage and Handling 

Activity Type 

Time Frame 

Comments / Details 


October- May (dry season) 


June-September (wet season) 

In Chad, the combination of intense heat and wind during the dry season followed by heavy rains during the wet season can have a negative impact on some forms of commodity storage. Typically, permanent warehouses can withstand seasonal changes without extensive damages to the dwelling or the stock. Mobile storage units (MSUs), however, are particularly vulnerable to seasonal changes and oftentimes take severe damage throughout the year. During the dry season (October-May), the East (ranging from Ennedi to Ouaddi) and Lac regions experience extreme heat and high winds which lead to a serious weakening of the MSU’s structural integrity. With the start of the rainy season (June-September), MSUs are particularly vulnerable to taking on damage and losses because of the intensity of the rains and the lack of structural integrity after the dry season.  


June- September 

Bulk/break-bulk commodity handling and offloading is frequently stopped during the rainy season. For shipments during the wet season, organizations will typically receive containerized consignments. Handling of bulk and break-bulk commodities during this period leads to infestation and losses.  

Storage and handling activities are heavily influenced by the time of the year in Chad. During the wet season, which typically ranges from June to September, heavy rains make some storage facilities inaccessible (especially those in the South and East of Chad). In addition, bulk/break-bulk commodity shipments during this period are prone to infestation and losses. To avoid wet season bottlenecks, it is necessary to pre-stock warehouses and halt bulk/break-bulk handling and offloading operations.   


Capacity and Contacts for In-Country Emergency Response 


The Chadian government has several commissions and committees in place that are mandated to respond to emergencies. The commissions and committees working in the humanitarian emergency space fall under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Land Administration.  

Commissions and Committees:

National Committee for Flood Disaster Assistance (CONASI) 

CONASI’s mandate is to help victims of floods, through resource mobilization and raising awareness. CONASI typically communicates with embassies, NGOs, and private operators to obtain contributions. 


National Commission for the Reception and Reintegration of Refugees (CNARR) 

CNARR is mandated by the Chadian Government to promote the protection and security of refugees and IDPs in Chad. CNARR oftentimes engages directly with UNHCR, OCHA, and other agencies or NGOs. Its tasks include: 

  • Assessment and improvement of the living conditions of refugees, displaced and repatriated peoples;

  • Raising awareness about the state of refugees and IDPs in Chad ;

  • Organizing the hosting of refugees and expatriated people in Chad;

  • Helping refugees according to financial capacities (using national or international organizations if needed).


Action Committee for Food Security and Crisis Management (CASAGC) 

Unlike CONASI and CNARR, CASAGC is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Agriculture. CASAGC coordinates closely with UNHCR and WFP to deploy food assistance in the case of emergency or high-risk areas. CASAGC is active in all regions of Chad. 


National Demining Commission 

The commission is charged with determining risk areas and clearing them with assistance from international partners.  


For more information on government contact details, please see the following link: 4.1 Chad Government Contact List 


Humanitarian Community

The Humanitarian community is very active in Chad. Currently, UN agencies, national/international NGOs, government entities, and non-profits operate in a variety of sectors throughout the 23 provinces. As of August 2022, there were 885 operational humanitarian programs. Of those 885 programs, 244 are provided by 11 UN agencies present in Chad.

Detailed information on current humanitarian programming can be found in the link below: Chad: Operational Presence - Humanitarian Data Exchange (

The humanitarian community has formed the International Humanitarian Logistics Working Group in Chad (LWG) under the facilitation of WFP. The group holds community wide meetings that establish good logistical coordination between organizations in humanitarian responses and information sharing. In 2022, a total of 6 meetings were held.  


For more information on humanitarian agency contact details, please see the following link: 4.2 Chad Humanitarian Agency Contact List 

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