Tanzania, United Republic of
1.1 Tanzania Humanitarian Background

Disasters, Conflicts and Migration

Natural Disasters



Comments / Details



Droughts affect several areas such as in Northern Manyara region, Kilosa District in Morogoro region and Dodoma region.  



Earthquakes remain rare events. A magnitude 5.9 earthquake struck Tanzania 27 km (17 mi) east northeast of Nsunga, Kagera Region in September 2016 at a depth of 40 km (25 mi). The shock had a maximum intensity of VII. Nineteen people were killed and 253 injured in Tanzania, while four people were killed in Kamuli and seven others were injured in the Rakai District of neighbouring Uganda.



20 April 2016, a total of 24,108 cases of Cholera including 378 deaths, had been reported nationwide. The majority of these cases had been reported from 23 regions in mainland Tanzania including Dar es Salaam, Tanga and Morogoro (20,961 cases, including 329 deaths).

Extreme Temperatures


Extreme temperature remains rare. Over the past few years, Dar es Salaam and other regions in the country recorded hotter weather. El Niño conditions in the Pacific Ocean appear to be among the causes of the change in weather patterns. However,



The problem occurred frequently, some of the regions that are usually affected by floods include Morogoro, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma and also coastal region.

Insect Infestation


The problem frequently occurred in northern, central and southern parts of Tanzania, and can affect the crops.



Mudslides can occur in mountain regions during the peak of the raining season (March to April).

Volcanic Eruptions


There are areas which have active volcano, such as Ol Doinyo Lengai mountain.

High Waves / Surges




High Winds


Other Comments


Man-Made Issues

Civil Strife


International Conflict


Internally Displaced Persons


Refugees Present


There are currently almost 310,000 refugees in Tanzania, of which 247,000 are Burundians who have arrived since April 2015 and the remaining are mostly Congolese. Refugees in Tanzania are hosted at three camps: Nduta, Mtendeli, and Nyarugusu. The population at Nduta is over 124,000, Mtendeli counts over 51,000 refugees while Nyarugusu has about 135,000 refugees. (UNHCR, 2017)

Landmines / UXO Present


Other Comments


For a more detailed database on disasters by country, please see the
Centre for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters Country Profile.

Seasonal Effects on Logistics Capacities

Seasonal Effects on Transport

Transport Type

Time Frame

Comments / Details

Primary Road Transport

December to April

Most of primary roads are affected by rain thus they are highly used during the dry season.

Secondary Road Transport

December to April

They are highly affected during rainy season. Some are difficult to access, or even impassable.

Rail Transport

Seasonal effects like floods or rain are encountered. However, due to the ongoing improvement on central railway line, the line is used throughout the year with occasional minor interruptions.

Air Transport

December to April

Heavy rain during this period, affects the operation of air transport leading to delays in timetable implementations.

Waterway Transport

Seasonal effects have various impacts on transport and other social and economic activities, such as during the rainy season due to inadequacy of transport infrastructures, the cost of operations tends to increase. Following are some seasonal effects on:

  • Air transport – Short-term delays due to adverse weather conditions, heavy rains cause the suspension of flights especially to airports with ‘Non-Asphalt ‘runways.
  • Port operations – The operations relevant to ships and port warehouse activities are suspended during heavy rains.
  • Road - The improvement and upgrading of roads have a positive result in the main corridors being considered all weather, however there are still road links that become impassable during the rains.
  • Rail – The rail systems, TAZARA and TRL in principle should be ‘all-weather’, sectors of the rail links have been closed in the past due to flooding and wash ways.

In December, the road transport tends to be congested particularly from the main cities to other regions because a lot of people like Chaga people return to their areas of origin for ceremonies, thus demand for transport is increased.

During the harvest period, the demand for transport in various areas is increased since farmers need to move their harvests to the market or storage areas. Sometimes a lot of crops damaged in farm areas due to poor transportation services especially in rural areas.

Seasonal Effects on Storage and Handling

Activity Type

Time Frame

Comments / Details


December - April

During the rainy seasons, the likelihood of damaged or spoiled cargo may occur due to water damage, thus Warehouse management must be particularly attentive to ensure that the correct moisture content of the commodities stored are maintained through proper ventilation and proper warehouse management practices should be implemented to ensure adequate circulation within the stacks.


December – April

During the rains, additional care must be taken in loading, securing, and covering the commodities that move by rail and road transport.


Currently the transit times have been reduced as a result of some improvements that are taking place in road infrastructure.

Capacity and Contacts for In-Country Emergency Response


The disaster management Act No. 7 of 2015 enacted by parliament of the United Republic of Tanzania is an Act to provide for establishment of the Disaster Management Agency, disaster risk management, coordination mechanism for disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery, establishment and management of Disaster Management Fund and to provide for other related matters. In Zanzibar disaster management department was established in 2006 by the Disaster management act no. 2 of 2003.

The agency is the national focal point for the coordination of disaster risk reduction and management. Its functions include:

-       formulate policies and plans on all activities related to disaster management in Tanzania mainland;

-       act as the central planning, coordination and monitoring institution for the prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and post-disaster recovery, taking into account all potential disaster risks;

-       coordinate and monitor inter-ministerial, multi-sectoral entities and technical committees responsible for disaster management at all levels; establish an Emergency operation and communication centre; establish an early warning system covering all sectors and maintain close links with different institutions that provide warning services;

-       promote education, knowledge and use of information communication technology in disaster management for public awareness; mobilize resources for the purpose of disaster management activities. (Government of Tanzania, 2015)

Military and/or civil defence assets are currently used in relief operations. They are used to supply aid to the victims during disaster response and the post-disaster periods.

For more information on government contact details, please see the following link: 4.1 Tanzania Government Contact List. 

Humanitarian Community

The humanitarian community plays an important role in Tanzania. The country welcomes refugees who need assistance and the international community conducts different humanitarian and development projects. One of the main interests which attracts the humanitarian community in Tanzania is the political stability and the country’s strategic location which allows to reach crisis areas easily. Below are some of the key humanitarian organizations that are active in Tanzania:

World Food Programme (WFP):  is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations, and is the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and food security, and helping countries to achieve their ‘Zero Hunger’ targets. WFP provides food assistance to an average of 80 million people in 76 countries each year. From its headquarters in Rome and from more than 80 country offices around the world, WFP works to help people who cannot produce or obtain enough food for themselves and their families. It is a member of the United Nations Development Group and part of its Executive Committee.




Mr. Michael Dunford


Plot No. 113, Ada Estate, Kinondoni, Mwindu Lane

P.O. Box 77778

Dar es Salaam

Phone: +255 22 219 7300

Emails: michael.dunford@wfp.org

Website: http://www.wfp.org/countries/tanzania-united-republic

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR): also known as the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme mandated to protect and support refugees at the request of a government or the UN itself and assists in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country. Its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland, and it is a member of the United Nations Development Group.




Ms. Chansa Kapaya


Plot 1658, Masaki, off Chole Road

P.O. Box 2666

Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Phone: +255 22 260 2708-10,

0785-730 400

Email: kapaya@unhcr.org

Website: http://www.unhcr.org/

The African Development Bank Group (AfDB) or Banque Africaine de Développment (BAD): is a multilateral development financial institution. The AfDB was founded in 1964 and comprises three entities: The African Development Bank, the African Development Fund and the Nigeria Trust Fund. The AfDB’s mission is to fight poverty and improve living conditions on the continent through promoting the investment of public and private capital in projects and programs that are likely to contribute to the economic and social development of the region. The AfDB is a financial provider to African governments and private companies investing in the regional member countries (RMC).




5th Floor, international House,

Garden Avenue


Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

+255 22 2125281-2

Website: www.afdb.org

Email: c.emenuga@afdb.org

The International Organization for Migration (IOM): is an international organization that provides services and advice concerning migration to governments and migrants, including internally displaced persons, refugees, and migrant workers. As of September 2016, it became a related organization of the United Nations.

IOM works to help ensure the orderly and humane management of migration to promote international cooperation on migration issues, assist in the search for practical solutions to migration problems and to provide humanitarian assistance to migrants in need, be they refugees, displaced persons or other uprooted people. The IOM Constitution gives explicit recognition to the link between migration and economic, social and cultural development, as well as to the right of freedom of movement of persons.




Mr Qasim Sufi

Head of Mission

Slipway Road, Plot No. 1365

P.O. Box9270

Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

+2552 22 60 29 13/2602935



For more information on humanitarian agency contact details, please see the following link: 4.2 Tanzania Humanitarian Agency Contact List.

Jump to top