1.1 Nigeria Humanitarian Background

Disasters, Conflicts and Migration 

Natural Disasters 



Comments / Details 



Droughts occur throughout Nigeria. However, they are more frequent and much more severe in the Sudano-Sahelian States of Kebbi, Sokoto, Zamfara, Katsina, Kano, Jigawa, Yobe, Gombe and Borno. 






Cholera, measles, guinea worm and cerebro-spinal meningitis have become endemic epidemics in parts of central and northern Nigeria. Lassa Fever, Monkey Fever outbreaks are common in many states. There was an Ebola outbreak in 2014.

Extreme Temperatures 





Over the period 1985 to 2014, flooding in Nigeria has affected more than 11 million lives with a total of 1100 deaths. Severe floods occurred in 2018. Lagos state has experienced most of the floods while more frequent floods are recorded in Niger, Adamawa, Oyo, Kano and Jigawa states due to the influence of rivers Niger, Benue, Ogun and Hadeja. 

Insect Infestation 


Research on post-harvest food loses in Nigeria  revealed as much as 20-30% loss of total grain production alone.  



Associated with flooding and more prevalent in the southern States.  

Volcanic Eruptions 


Large volcanic provinces (Jos and Biu Plateaux) occupy the eastern half of Nigeria situated parallel to the Cameroon Volcanic Line. They are dotted with conspicuously visible dormant volcanoes with no reported signs of activity. These volcanoes do represent sites of potential future eruptions.  

High Waves / Surges 





Over 70% of the land area of Nigeria experiences annual bush fires and economic losses as a result.

High Winds 


With the onset of the rainy season in Nigeria’s north-eastern States varying degrees of damages are expected as the rains are more often than not accompanied by very high winds and have been known to cause serious damage to properties. 

Other Comments 


Man-Made Issues 

Civil Strife 


Nigeria suffers from a number of regional and local disputes on issues fuelled by politics and economic inequality. Ongoing insurgency and farmer-herder conflicts are noteworthy.

International Conflict 



Internally Displaced Persons 


Nigerian Government and IOM estimated there were 1.7 million IDPs in June 2017 as a result of violence and flooding.

Refugees Present 


Many refugees fleeing violence in neighbouring countries (notably Cameroon). 

Landmines / UXO Present 


Mines Advisory Group (MAG) research showed 439 casualties from 144 accidents involving landmines and unexploded bombs between January 2016 and March 2018. Casualty figures reached 19 people per month in 2017, with thirty percent of civilians killed known to be children. 

Averaging one person killed or injured in the region every 1.5 days, Nigeria now has one of the ten highest casualty rates in the world. 

Other Comments 



For a more detailed database on disasters by country, please see the Centre for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters Country Profile. 

Seasonal Effects on Logistics Capacities 

Seasonal Effects on Transport 

Transport Type 

Time Frame 

Comments / Details 

Primary Road Transport 

June to September 

November to December 

Rain season. The rainy season in north-east Nigeria lasts for three to four months from approximately June through September. It leads to flooding and makes some of the key access roads impassable, increasing also the risk of waterborne and vector borne diseases in areas of intervention. 

Festive season results in heavy traffic on all roads, and pressure on transport companies and port facilities as retailers and wholesalers stock up.

Secondary Road Transport 

June to September 

As above. During rainy season many secondary roads become impassable due to mud and flooding. 

Rail Transport 



Air Transport 

July to August 

Hajj results in around 100,000 people making the annual pilgrimage to Mecca, exact dates change as it is based on a lunar calendar. Air transport becomes heavily booked at this time.

Waterway Transport 

June to September 

Rain season often results in localised flooding that disrupts waterway transport. 


Seasonal Effects on Storage and Handling 

Activity Type 

Time Frame 

Comments / Details 


November to December 

Retailers and wholesalers stock up for the festive season putting extra pressure on storage facilities. 


June to September 

Rainy season can present issues with keeping cargoes dry when being loaded / unloaded. 




Capacity and Contacts for In-Country Emergency Response 


The National Emergency Agency (NEMA) established by Government serves as the primary coordinating agency for disaster response and recovery activities with oversight directly from The Office of the President 

The agency established functional zonal offices located in each of the six geo-political zones of the country as follows: North Central (Jos), North West (Kaduna), North East (Maiduguri), South West (Lagos), South (Port Harcourt) and South East (Enugu). The zones provide for quicker response to disaster situations with warehouses in its six zonal offices and Abuja stocked with relief and rehabilitation items.   

The National Disaster Response Plan (NDRP) is a document approved by the Federal Executive Council which states the roles of stakeholders in response to disasters for a coordinated approach by all Federal agencies and departments in responding effectively to disasters that overwhelm the ability of the State and Local Governments. 

Humanitarian partners continue to work in close collaboration with federal and state ministries, departments and agencies, including: 

The Office of the Vice President,  

The Ministry of Budget and National Planning (MoBNP),  

The National Emergency Management Agency/ State Emergency Management Agencies (NEMA/SEMAs),  

The Presidential Committee on the North-East Initiative (PCNI) and line ministries functioning as part of the Inter-Ministerial Task Force (IMTF).  


In 2018, the Government of Borno State and the humanitarian community developed a Returns Strategy and Returns Policy Framework to make progress towards durable solutions to displacement, including through the voluntary return of IDPs and refugees, where possible 

Disaster Response Units (DRU) are units in military formations dedicated to emergency/disaster responses. The involvement of the military is necessitated especially for situations that may require physical human strength and some military equipment. The units exist in identified Army, Navy and Airforce formations across the country. 

For more information on government contact details, please see the following link: 4.1 Nigeria Government Contact List


There are a number of humanitarian agencies operating in Nigeria, The Organisation for the Coordination of Humanitarian Agencies (OCHA) is the coordinating body.  

Among those present the following all have ongoing relief programs, the majority of organisations’ have operations based in the North-Eastern states where conflict and climatic issues have displaced large numbers. 

International Organization for Migration, United Nations Children's Fund, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, International Medical Corps, World Food Programme, International Committee of the Red Cross, United Nations Mine Action Service, PLAN, ACTED, MSF, and over 100 more. 

For more information on humanitarian agency contact details, please see the following link: 4.2 Nigeria Humanitarian Agency Contact List


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