1.1 Djibouti Humanitarian Background

Djibouti Humanitarian Background

Disasters, Conflicts and Migration

Natural Disasters

Yes / No

Comments / Details


Yes n/a


Yes Small scale, Never been reported among the top 10 natural disaster in Djibouti


Yes For Bacterial infectious diseases, 4 events have been reported, during which 2,047 individuals were affected and 49 were killed. During the same period, only one event related to Parasitic infectious diseases was reported, it affected 2000 people and killed 43 individuals, an average of 12 individuals per event. Regarding affected persons, the same report mentions 2,047, given an average of 512 per event.

Extreme Temperatures

Yes During dry season (Mid April to Mid-August) average is about 40°C


Yes Of the 7cases reported, 3 are unspecified, 1 reported as Flash Flood and other 3 as General Flood. For both, a total of 689,300 individuals were affected, 231 were killed. As a result of flood, it was also reported that economic damage costs amounted 5,719 USD. The worst year among these 7 events occurred on 19/11/1994 killing 145 persons and affecting 150,000 individuals

Insect Infestation

n/a n/a


n/a n/a

Volcanic Eruptions

Yes Threat is probable as Djibouti is along Rift Valley

High Waves / Surges

n/a n/a


n/a n/a

High Winds

Yes At the beginning of cold season (around end of July up August), Djibouti used to be affected by sandy/dusty wind which sometimes reduces visibility at about 50m. It’s called “Khamsin”.

Other Comments

For Djibouti, some natural disaster (particularly floods and droughts) exact day month related to an event are not available, and for other disaster (particularly that occurred before 1974) available records don’t provide an exact day or month of the event.

In addition, with regards to Epidemics, it includes Bacterial infections (Cholera), parasitic infectious diseases

Man-Made Issues

Civil Strife

Yes Happened - weak percentage

International Conflict

Yes A threat is still actual

Internally Displaced Persons

Yes Happened - weak percentage

Refugees Present


About 20,000 from Somali and at less scale from Ethiopia

Landmines / UXO Present

Yes Low scale around Medeho Mountain in Tadjourah District

Other Comments


For more detailed database on disasters by country, please see the Centre for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters:

EMDAT information for Djibouti

For information on Djibouti Humanitarian information on the food security situation, please see the following document:

Djibouti Food Security Information

Calamities and Seasonal Affects

Seasonal Affects on Transport



From (month) to (month)

Primary Road Transport

Roads are paved, therefore the primary transport is opened all through the year January to December

Secondary Road Transport

Most of secondary roads are not paved. In addition, in those locations where they cross temporary rivers, instead of erecting bridges to cross temporary rivers, concrete has been put to improve adherence thus vehicles drive through the river. January to December

Rail Transport

The railway between Djibouti and Addis Ababa has not been operational for several years and is expected to be rehabilitated within a frame work of 5 years. January to December

Air Transport

No seasonal affect. Aircrafts fly into Djibouti City all round the year January to December

Waterway Transport

During the Khamsin (a dusty wind torn) it becomes difficult to sail on the red sea from Djibouti to Tadjourah and Obock July to August

During the rainy season depending on the region, even if it’s not raining in Djibouti, temporary rivers become active due to water from the highlands in Ethiopia and Eritrea.

In Djibouti, casual labourers for handling, work within ethnic groups. Djibouti city is divided into sectors and labourers work with the sector i.e. in the port environs it’s the Afar whereas in other areas in Djibouti such as Zone industrielle it’s the Somalis who work there. 

Seasonal Affects on Storage and Handling (economic, social, climate...)



From <month> to <month>


During the hot season, long storage may result to infestation of commodity. It’s advised to follow up closely on the ratio of commodities stored during the mentioned period, otherwise to carry out fumigation

May to October


Due to the high temperatures during this period, the workers' performance especially around midday is low. Thus for better/max performance workers don’t work during those hours.

May to October


In Djibouti people are familiar with the shifting principle. Indeed, it’s common to see people working up to very late in night (second from 15:30 to 22:30 and third shift from 23:00 to 06:00) As a result, it’s important to plan tasks of the day early as the list of labourers should be submitted for approval to port authorities prior to their entrance into the port.

January to December

Capacity and Contacts for In-Country Emergency Response


Efforts have been done by the Government of Djibouti (GoD) to set up and implement Disaster Risk Management Policy at national level as well as within regional context through regional institution named Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD). The Djibouti government is slowly enhancing its institutional capacity for DRM by building the capacity of its national leadership and implementing the HFA. The Republic of Djibouti recognizes the fact that natural disasters are major causes of poverty thus it takes centre stage in its current Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) for FY 2009-2012. The government plans to address disaster vulnerability by integrating DRM into sectarian activities. 

For information on Djibouti Government Emergency Responce,  please see the following document:

Djibouti Capacity and Contacts for Emergency Response

For information on Djibouti Government contact details,  please see the following link:

4.1 Djibouti Government Contact List

Humanitarian Community

For information on Djibouti Humanitarian Agency contact details,  please see the following link:

4.2 Djibouti Humanitarian Agency Contact List

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