Ecuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador, is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Ecuador also includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometers (620 mi) west of the mainland. The capital city is Quito, while the largest city is Guayaquil.
What is now Ecuador was home to a variety of Amerindian groups that were gradually incorporated into the Inca Empire during the 15th century. The territory was colonized by Spain during the 16th century, achieving independence in 1820 as part of Gran Colombia, from which it emerged as its own sovereign state in 1830. The legacy of both empires is reflected in Ecuador's ethnically diverse population, with most of its 16.4 million people being mestizos, followed by large minorities of European, Amerindian, and African descendants. Spanish is the official language and is spoken by a majority of the population, though 13 Amerindian languages are also recognized, including Quechua and Shuar.
Ecuador is a middle-income country, with a developing economy that is highly dependent on commodities, namely petroleum and agricultural products. It is governed as a democratic presidential republic. One of 17 megadiverse countries in the world, Ecuador hosts many endemic plants and animals, such as those of the Galápagos Islands. In recognition of its unique ecological heritage, the new constitution of 2008 is the first in the world to recognise legally enforceable Rights of Nature, or ecosystem rights.
Generic country information can be located from sources which are regularly maintained and reflect current facts and figures. For a generic country overview, please consult the following sources:
Ecuador Wikipedia Country Information (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecuador)
Ecuador IMF Country Information (https://www.imf.org/en/Countries/ECU)
Ecuador Economist Intelligence Unit Information* (http://country.eiu.com/ecuador)
(*note - this is a paid service)
Ecuador World Food Programme Information (http://www1.wfp.org/countries/ecuador)
Ecuador UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Information (https://www.unocha.org/latin-america-and-caribbean-rolac/sobre-ocha-rolac)
Facts and Figures
Ecuador Wolfram Alpha Information (http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=Ecuador&lk=1&assumption=ClashPrefs_*Country.Ecuador-)
Ecuador World Bank Information (https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/ecuador)
Ecuador Population Information (http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/ecuador-population/)